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NUMBER 64 FALL 2000 

Goldfish, Death, and the Maiden 

Chloe Nichols 

One of the most terrifying passages in Lewis 
Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland occurs early 
on when, trapped in the long, dark hallway, Alice - level- 
headed as usual - tries to soothe herself by reciting Isaac 
Watts' sermonizing fable "How Doth the Little Busy Bee". 
That ought to do the trick. It promises good marks - the 
best - at Final Judgment for all the bee-ish: the sensible, 
the diligent. Yet already the comic savagery of Wonderland 
is erupting. In actuality, she hears herself inventing: 

How c\oth the little crocodile 
Improve bis golden tail 

And pour the waters of the Nile 
On every golden scale! 

How cheerfully he seems to grin, 
How neatly spreads his jaws, 

And welcomes little fishes in 
With gently smiling jaws! 

This pun- and allusion-rich picture of life's end 
substitutes cheerfully murderous mechanism for the 
balancing scales of Christian work-and-reward. The indolent 
crocodile of Egyptian mystery kills, as a real croc does, 
without apparent struggle. Carroll avoids active verbs of 
slaughter, and only has him "welcome in" his prey. Yet the 
beast actually wields the power of all-condemning judgment, 
maintaining "every golden scale" (of justice). These are only 
the first of the story's fish-and-golden-scales, and the 
crocodile tail will twist into the tale/tail poem of the Mouse, 
where the claws now belong to Fury, a cur who, like the 
crocodile, has "nothing to do" (unlike the boring, busy bee) 
and will also deal judgment which is only a death sentence. 
Of course, Carroll tends to weight thematically the 
beginnings and endings of his texts. Since this doubly 
foreshadowed false judgment comes very early in the story, 
it is fitting that Carroll's sense of symmetry produces at 
the climax of the closing chapters a more vivid scene of 
judgment perverted, again conducted by a murderous death- 
figure, the Queen of Hearts. (Carroll referred to her as a 
"Fury" in his subsequent stage directions.) 

Two adjacent poems of common content at the 
story's opening strongly suggest that the theme of death may 
extend throughout the story. 

No one who has ever hunted through Alice's 
Adventures for a hidden theme has missed a treat - whatever 
critics say. Intuitively, we sense that Carroll, with his love 
of puzzles, has slipped some riddle in. Yet good analysts 
certainly have objected that there are already too many 
proposed "meanings" for Alice anyway, or that nonsense 
brings more pleasure when taken pure. Yet the last word in 
the argument may be that what so many people have found 
irresistible won't be resisted - as long as your take on Alice's 
meaning (or lack of) is as good as mine. And so, here is 

This version of Alice's Adventures was suggested 
by Alice's short flashback, in the courtroom scene, to a real- 
world household accident. Our terrible human secret is that 
everything now alive will die - and learning that darkens 

every young child's life. The day my little boy found out, he 
got pretty quiet, then, hours later, came back to me. "Mom, 
I don't want to do that." I could take away most scary things 
- why not this? 

In the same way Lewis Carroll, with his army of 
siblings and child-friends, most likely faced that moment 
vicariously — and re-faced it — many times. I suggest that 
Alice's Adventures is a metafiction of Alice's own black 
shock, offered with all the comfort which the Rev. Dodgson 
could muster. Is there any evidence? 

Yes. First, vivid incidents from Alice's real-world 
past flash through her memory and spark events in 
Wonderland - Dinah's mousing exploits, and romping with 
the farmer's pup (who becomes a giant). Poems memorized 
at home turn inside out and reappear Wonderland-style. In 
the same way, during the trial of the Knave of Hearts, Alice 
recalls a home-front crisis so small that it is easy to 
overlook, as the fine essayist Susan Sherer 1 has done. Sherer 
says, "after this scene [Alice's attempt early in the story to 
remember lessons], Alice almost never considers, even in 
passing, her waking life, [except for] reflections on Dinah". 
Yet in the trial scene she lucidly remembers the emotions, 
events, and time of overturning a globe (bowl) of goldfish 
and then rescuing them, flopping and gasping, from certain 
death on the carpet. She keeps the memory to herself, which 
indicates that it may signify more to her than the casually- 
mentioned recollections of Dinah's antics. The fish may have 
looked pretty - spangled toys scattered around, wriggling. 
(The Disneyland "Alice" attraction includes a painting of 
them.) Yet, Oh! To pick up every one! The dream-tale 
transforms and re-plays this little incident three times, in 
changing forms that reflect Alice's growing self-command. 
Through all three scenes, Alice gathers the strength to 
oppose head-on, and finally, the threat of death. 

In the first scene, the spilling fish globe appears as 
the Pool of Tears, with water sloshing, frantic creatures 
jostling, and sudden danger. Dinah, stalking and hungry, lurks 
through Alice's conversation and erupts in the Mouse's "tail- 
tale" poem of Fury the Cat. No doubt if a real-world fishbowl 
had overturned in the Liddell household, Dinah would 
instantly have appeared, all speed, teeth and claws. A panicky, 
tearful Alice would have to scramble to save her fish, just 
as she tries with clumsy goodwill to dry and restore the 
creatures of the caucus race. 

Much later, a more-seasoned Alice meets a second, 
more comic, trial - the Lobster-Quadrille (exhibited by the 
Gryphon and the Mock Turtle). Alice sees the dance only as 
a second-hand demonstration, complete with songs. The true 
Quadrille takes place only in the imaginations of three 
curious figures on the empty shingle, two capering madly, 
one politely looking on. In the song, fish again thrash madly 
through the water, but dancing, not dying. This melee soon 
dissolves into peaceful undersea school days, and death only 
threatens as a distant echo of meaning through the music. 
'"Won't you walk a little faster?' said a whiting to a snail" 
is, as Martin Gardner points out, a parody of, "Won't you 
come into my parlor, said a spider to a fly" - a poem of 

predatory death. The cat involved this time is the Cheshire 
Cat, a non-combatant of Wonderland scrimmages who 
"looked good-natured, [but] still... had very long claws and 
a great many teeth, so she felt it ought to be treated with 
respect." Yet it never shows hostility. Since it presides over 
a royal squabble about its own execution (cleverly taking 
its own head off), apparently it cannot be killed. 

In the second, less threatening incident, Alice 
remains a passive witness. That is appropriate since she has 
just dodged a confrontation with death, symbolized by the 
Queen of Hearts - who else? When the Queen had ordered 
the cat's execution, Alice had "passed the buck" to the 
Duchess. S* ; ll, Alice has begun to fight the Queen secretly. 
She protects the gardener-cards by hiding them and lying 
about them. At this point, then, Alice resists death, but lacks 
the courage to defy it openly. 

In the final incident, Alice at last becomes the 
active force for Life, rescuing tumbled little creatures and 
restoring order. In the courtroom, her sudden spurt of growth 
accidentally overturns the jury box, which reminds her of 
the real-life goldfish accident. To her the jury are not now 
much larger than fishes. 

...she jumped up in such a hurry that she tipped over the 
jury-box with the edge of her skirt, upsetting all the jury- 
men on to the heads or the crowd below, and there they lay 
sprawling about, reminding her very much of a globe of 
goldfish she had accidentally upset the week before. 

'Oh, I BEG your pardon!' she exclaimed in a tone of great 
dismay, and began picking them up again as quickly as she 
could, for the accident of the goldfish kept running in her 
head, and she had 3 vague sort of idea that they must be 
collected at once and put back into the jury-box, or they 
would die. 

Now Alice actively takes control. Although she 
feels "dismay" and has a "vague sort of idea that they must 
be collected. . .or they would die", her response is rapid and 
capable. She even takes time to rearrange Bill the Lizard. 
The Tenniel drawing of this moment makes Alice look 
kindly, motherly, mature - a shadow of the future adult. 
Directly afterward, Alice courageously confronts and 
defeats the passionate Queen of Hearts, who has, of course, 
always represented the omnipresence of death. 

I believe this interpretation works for several 
reasons. It gives Alice's character added depth to imagine 
her unselfish desperation to save helpless creatures; this 
insight balances her accustomed coolness. Clues at the 
opening of the story point to this version: Alice falls into a 
hole; a grave is a hole in the ground big enough to contain a 
body. Soon, trapped in a coffin-sized space (the White 
Rabbit's dressing room), she hears a digger busy outside. 
Here she decides glumly that she cannot get any older since 
she cannot get any bigger - a dark thought. 

Later in the story many hints also suggest dying 
and death, more than the plot requires. The Mock Turtle 
weeps because he will soon be soup. Father William's son 
may be kicked downstairs. Yet nobody in Wonderland dies. 
It raises questions. Why should the Duchess, who is not, 
generally, murderous, order Alice's death? Why is the Queen 

so bent on broadside execution? This can seem comic until 
I remember, like my little boy, that the death sentence really 
has no exceptions. 

A happy side effect of the "fishglobe theory" is 
that it also accounts for some of the odd visual effects of 
the story. Children playing near a large crystal globe of bright 
swimming fish will try out the comic effects of the curved 
glass. Things seen through it stretch and compress. They 
also vanish, then reappear. Is the Cheshire Cat simply Dinah- 
through-the-fishglobe? Is the fishglobe a forerunner of the 
looking-glass of the second book? Is growing/shrinking 
Alice a view that a real-life sister giggled over? Did the Rev. 
Dodgson, fascinated by the lenses of his photography, also 
amuse the Liddell sisters with these curious images in the 

What are the advantages of this interpretation? 
First, it accounts for some interesting points of story 
construction. It connects the rabbit hole, the Pool of Tears, 
the "Mary Ann" incident, and the oddities of changing 
appearance (Alice's, the Cheshire Cat's). It tells us why 
metallic gold (especially seen through glass) is such an 
important visual image. Another advantage is a symmetry 
added to the structure by matching the chaos of the Pool of 
Tears and Caucus-race to Alice's satisfaction in restoring 
the jurors unharmed. The two scenes pair off nicely. 

Finally, I believe that Carroll intends her terrified 
scramble among the fish to give her character human warmth. 
Alice can be cool. Restoring the jurors reveals her kindly 
heart. This act strengthens her resolve, so that she can finally 
directly confront the murderous Queen of Hearts. The 
confrontation takes courage, which is symbolized by her 
restored size. Although it seems odd to suppose that 
someone card-sized could frighten her, Alice's weapons are 
logic and experience - not strength. She rarely sees her size 
as a fighting advantage, so that in this situation only 
emotional growth (which she has accomplished) would erase 
her fear of the furious Queen. 

This suggestion of mine puts both of them, Alice 
and Lewis Carroll, in a good light. There is at least enough 
internal evidence to consider it seriously. I am not sure, 
though, that it puts the Rev. Dodgson in such a good light. 
Nothing in it is remotely Christian. 

Chloe Nichols, Ph.D. 
J. Frank White Academy 
Lincoln Memorial University 

Works Cited: 

"Secrecy and Autonomy in Lewis Carroll" by Susan Sherer, 
Philosophy and Literature Vol.20 No. 1 ( 1 996) 

Carroll, Lewis. The Annotated Alice: Alice s Adventures in 
Wonderland. Ed. Martin Gardner. New York: Bramhall House, 1960. 

Language and Truth 

in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

John Tufail, Ph.D. 

I would like to examine a position that has had fairly 
general acceptance in contemporary Western thought 
amongst philosophers from a wide range of ideological and 
philosophical schools of thought. This is the position taken 
by people as disparate as Mannheim, Althusser, Ayer and 
Lukes 1 - that although some aspects of reality are cultur- 
ally mediated, socially determined, irretrievably ideologi- 
cal in nature, others are not. I quote for example, Steven 
Lukes from his essay 'On the Social Determination of 

i. There are no good reasons for supposing that all 

criteria of truth and validity are context dependent and 


ii. there are good reasons for maintaining that some 

are not, that these are universal and fundamental, and 

that those criteria which are context dependent are 

parasitic on them... 

To support this position, Lukes appeals to language 
as evidence of the universality of meaning with the notion 

the existence of a common reality as a necessary pre- 
condition of our understanding G's language ('G' 
being a member of a language group other than my 
own). Though we need not agree about all the facts, 
the member of 'G' must have our distinction between 
truth and falsity as applied to a shared reality if we are 
to understand their language. 

I believe that this appeal is essentially misplaced 
and is based on a misconception of how meaning develops 
in language. To illustrate this point I can turn, inevitably, to 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (AW) as this very ques- 
tion is one which Lewis Carroll addressed extremely suc- 
cinctly one hundred years before Lukes raised it! 

A three inch high Alice has just fallen into a pool 
of tears formed by a nine foot Alice. As she struggles in the 
pool she is overtaken by the Mouse which she attempts to 
engage in pleasant conversation. Failing in English, she tries 
again in French: 

So she began again: "Ou est ma Chattel" which was the 
first lesson in her French lesson book. The Mouse gave a 
su44en leap out of the water, and seemed to quiver all 
over with fright. "Oh I beg your pardon!" crie4 Alice 
hastily, afrai'4 that she ha4 hurt the poor animal's feelings, 
"I quite forgot you 4'4n't like cats." 

"Not like cats!" crie4 the Mouse, in a shrill passionate 
voice. "Woul4 you like cats if you were me?" 

"Well perhaps not," sai'4 Alice, in a soothing tone: "4on't 
be angry about it. An4 yet I wish 1 coul4 show you our cat 
Dinah: I think you'4 take a fancy to cats if you coul4 only 
see her. She is such a 4ear quiet thing. ... An4 she is such a 
nice soft thing to nurse - an4 she's such a capital one rot 
catching mice..." 

The switch from English to French here by Carroll 
is interesting and useful when looking at Lukes' argument. 

It seems to me that Carroll is showing us that, contrary to 
Lukes' claim, it is not necessary for us to share a common 
reality in order to develop a knowledge of how another lan- 
guage operates - merely to develop a negotiated perceptual 
approximation. Thus Wittgenstein argues that such a nego- 
tiation of meaning does not require a 'common understand- 
ing' (Lukes' phrase) but a 'complicated network of superfi- 
cial similarities which overlap and crisscross' (Philosophi- 
cal Investigations). 

Alice was in this manner able to communicate on 
the level of superficial appearances with the Mouse (note, 
by the way, the Platonic capital), in the sense that there was 
a similarity between her concept of 'cat' and that of the 
Mouse at the level of superficial perception / material ap- 
pearances. However, she remained fundamentally unable to 
share the Mouse's world view at the level of meaning. To 
Alice a cat would always be a loveable, harmless (indeed, 
by virtue of being an excellent mouser, extremely useful) 
pet. To the Mouse on the other hand it would equally re- 
main a dangerous, nasty, low assassin. 

This is a theme to which Carroll returns on a num- 
ber of occasions in A W and can be seen as a central theme 
in this particular book. In her very next conversation with 
the Mouse she starts to talk about her loveable 'bright eyed 
terrier' and reference will be made to the episode when 
Alice nibbles the mushroom and finds her neck extending 
from her body. In this incident she meets a pigeon who iden- 
tifies her as a serpent: the Idea of a serpent being to a pi- 
geon any creature that is both all head and neck and eats 
eggs. To underline his point, Carroll brings Alice, the 3" 
tall Alice, into confrontation with a 'normally' sized puppy 
- an episode in which Alice's universalist (Idealistic?) view 
nearly brings her to grief. Yet having been nearly trampled 
to death by this relatively enormous animal, our heroine 
cannot conceive of it in any other terms than "And yet what 
a dear little puppy it was!" 

Carroll in these episodes seems to be making a 
crucial distinction between perception and understanding - 
between the material and the essential - the point being that 
two people/species with different world views, different 
realities, would not necessarily disagree that something is 
perceived (a puppy, a cat or a tear for example), but their 
understanding of the significance of the perception would 
essentially differ. 

This understanding/perception distinction is im- 
portant when one is considering the function of illustration 
in nonsense works, for it reflects directly on the position 
taken by Bacon, Spencer and Crane on the evolution and 
nature of language, in that it asks serious questions of their 
position that the illustration is purely and formally an evi- 
dentiary mediator between language and reality. 

In The Colors of Rhetoric, Wendy Steiner puts the 
evidentiary case as follows: 

Illustrations are pictures of the thing-world inserted 
into the verbal text. As pictures, Icons, they both 
signify and contain the characteristics of what they 

But of course Carroll's books both exploit for its 
humorous possibilities and deny the validity of this state- 
ment at any but the most superficial and uncertain level. 

I feel that the importance of illustration to Lewis 
Carroll cannot be overstated. Throughout his life he used 
the perceived evidential properties of illustration to brighten 
and clarify not only his fictional texts but also his non-fic- 
tional texts (in fact it is worth stating at this stage that the 
distinction fiction/non-fiction as applied to Carroll is a par- 
ticularly arbitrary one, as even his most 'academic' works 
employ fictive devices for their 'illustrative' possibilities. 

The opening paragraph of AW contains the follow- 
ing quotation: 

"What is the use of a book", thought Alice, "without 
pictures or conversations?" 

and on a number of occasions the narrator plays 
on the evidentiary concept of illustration - not only in his 
attempt to 'legitimise' his fictive world - 
but also to undermine it. When Alice meets 
the Gryphon, for example, the narrator re- 
fers out from the written text by saying, "if 
you don't know what a Gryphon is {my 
emphasis}, look at the picture." The point I 
think to note here is the word 'is'. Carroll 
does not say, "if you don't know what a 
Gryphon looks like", he uses is - a direc- 
tion which implies existential import for 
the Gryphon. I suggest that we accept that 
this distinction was no mere piece of for- 
tuitous phrasing by Carroll - particularly 
in view of the earlier distinctions made be- 
tween material perception and Platonic ide- 
alism - it is a distinction which is crucial 
to Carroll's humour. Indeed, it is something 
more than humour that Carroll is achieving 
and Carroll's choice of the Gryphon for this particular piece 
of existential sleight-of-pen brings to mind his intense in- 
terest in Blake's illustrations during the period he was pre- 
paring A W. We know that Carroll was so interested in them 
that he had ordered special printings. We do not know but 
are entitled to suspect that the illustration which interested 
him perhaps more than others was "Beatrice Addressing 
Dante from the Car" (1826-27) with its prominent illustra- 
tion of a griffon before Ezekiel's chariot. Certainly the re- 
ligious and poetic symbolism of the Griffon would have 
been well known to Carroll's contemporaries. As Stephen 
Pricket says in his book Words and the Word: 

For Blake, Dante's bi-fold vision of the Griffin is not 
merely an encounter with the spirit of prophecy, but 
more specifically with Poetic Genius.' 

This 'bi-fold vision' linking the Griffon with 'Po- 
etic Genius' not only reflects Blake's powerful biblical 
imagery, but also brings to the forefront Coleridge's insis- 
tence of the primacy of the Poetic in Biblical translation 
and interpretation and the huge influence Coleridge's neo- 
Platonism had on Carroll's linguistic and theological de- 

Note once again how Carroll's precise use of lan- 
guage is an appeal to understanding rather than the visual 
perception of the phenomenon. In AW Carroll leaves little 
to chance. For later in the same work, at the trial of 'the 
knave', the narrator once again interjects with the statement, 
'the king wore his crown over his wig (look at the frontis- 
piece if you want to see how he did it)' . As with the Gryphon, 
the appeal is to understanding (how the act was achieved) 
not to perception (not what it looked like). 

Of course Carroll was not the only 19 th century 
writer to use illustrations linguistically, either to enhance, 
or even undermine, the written text - nor even the first. 
Most famously Thackeray {Vanity Fair) and Dickens (no- 
tably in Dombey and Son where he used illustration to evade 
Victorian mores on adultery) also used illustration in the 
same linguistic manner. This challenging of illustration as 
purely evidentiary, essentially subservient to the written text 
was, if not common, at least a promi- 
nent feature of Victorian illustrative 
philosophy. Yet the prevailing view of 
the text/illustration relationship re- 
mained (and to a large extent still re- 
mains) that reflected by Herbert Read 
in his historical account of the evolu- 
tion of aesthetics, Icon and Idea: 

"Before the word was the image, and 
the first recorded attempts of man to 
define the real are pictorial attempts, 
(images scratched or pecked or 
painted on the surfaces of rocks or 
caves. Our knowledge of the existence 
of this primal art is comparatively re- 
cent, and so staggering was the impact 
of the knowledge on the scientific 
mind that for some years the authen- 
ticity of the evidence was doubted. Even now the signifi- 
cance of this art, for anthropology, for aesthetics, and I would 
say, for philosophy, has not been sufficiently appreciated." 

The presumption that the motivated sign precedes 
the arbitrary sign in the evolution of language is a powerful 
motivation in the perception that the motivated is necessar- 
ily secondary to the arbitrary. Yet such accounts are demon- 
strably selective and wrong. It ignores the fact that in so- 
called pre-literate societies, the arbitrary sign predominates 
over the motivated sign. Status and rank badges, boundary 
signifiers, direction indicators are all examples of the arbi- 
trary having precedence over the motivated. It also assumes 
an evolutionary theory of language based on the extremely 
subjective idea of a hierarchy of linguistic types; hieroglyph, 
cuneiform, ideogram, alphabet: 

The stylised symbol of the human form, though it is so 
dynamic in the Franco-Cantarian and Bushman art... is 
a sign, and in the extreme case we are near to the 
Chinese ideogram or pictograph. We are at the 
beginning of a long evolution that led to the invention 
(sic) of writing. (Read, op cit) 

Or see Bacon: 
Again, if one considers the refinement of the liberal 
arts.... as the discovery of the letters of the alphabet 
(still unadopted by the Chinese) in grammar. 

We are presented with an evolutionary continuum 
ranging from the pictorial representation of the Bushman's 
art - representing a one-to-one relationship between sign 
and object, symbol and reality, and the arbitrary, unmoti- 
vated, abstracted linguistic signs of Western Culture at the 
other - representing a retreat from the 'real' to the intel- 
lectual. This is a hypothesis which is pregnant with qualita- 
tive implications. Yet, ironically, much of the debate about 
language since the Baconian revolution has been precisely 
to attempt to force language back into a one-to-one rela- 
tionship with reality. The attempt to somehow 'purify' lan- 
guage - return it to a 'state of grace' - was both a powerful 
philosophical movement throughout the 18 th and much of 
the 19 th centuries, it was, perhaps more significantly, a con- 
sistent theological theme. The 'plain language' movement 
led by Bishop Piatt and large elements of the evangelical 
movements saw this as the only way to ensure that the Bible 
was kept free of blasphemous metaphorical interpretation. 
It is in this historical context that Carroll's works must be 
seen in order to fully understand the radical nature of his 

To return to A W, the frontispiece contains at least 
one other contradictory element which can be seen as chal- 
lenging the evidentiary nature of illustration. Every reader 
of AW makes the assumption that at the trial the prisoner 
before the court is the Knave of Hearts. This assumption is 
based on a number of textual and extra-textual 'evidences'; 
knowledge of the rhyme in question, the consequent con- 
textual relationship of certain key characters (the King and 
Queen of Hearts), who stand in the position of both victims 
and judges, and the two illustrations of the trial scene with 
their dominant use of heart symbols. 

Curiously, it is the case that nowhere in the text is 
the prisoner before the court referred to directly as the 
Knave of Hearts. The only reference to a Knave of Hearts 
is the recitation of the nursery rhyme itself. The fact that 
the identity of the prisoner is rarely (if ever) queried is due 
to two factors. First is the unconscious 'recognition' by 
most readers that (most) illustrations are indeed subservi- 
ent to the text. Second is the accumulations of hints and 
associative allusions by the narrator (e.g. in the garden scene, 
'The King and Queen of Hearts... and the Knave'), not the 
least of which is the frontispiece itself. However, although 
it is a full page illustration dominating the reader's con- 
sciousness from the outset, it is both spatially and tempo- 
rally removed from the trial scene. It is only when the illus- 
tration is examined closely that it can be seen that, of all 
the cards illustrated in this story, the knave is the only one 
whose identity is always ambiguous. In none of the illustra- 
tions of the knave (there are three) is he ever defined and 
unambiguously represented as the Knave of Hearts. Never 
is he shown sporting a Heart motif and, indeed, on the fron- 
tispiece the predominant motif is the Club. 

However, it should not be forgotten that, although 
the knave is most consistently not named by suit during the 
trial, elsewhere in the book a knave is identified by suit as 
'The Knave of Hearts'. This is in chapter VIII, 'The Queen's 
Croquet Ground'. In the procession (first) Carroll says, 
'Then followed the Knave of Hearts, carrying the King's 
crown.' Then a few lines later; '...the Queen said severely, 
"Who is this?'" She said it to the Knave of Hearts...' 

And immediately adjacent to these observations is 
an illustration depicting the Knave of Hearts carrying the 
crown. Now, please compare the illustration of the Knave 
of Hearts with the illustrations of the Knave in the trial. 
They are quite clearly different personae. The clothing is 
different (look at the hat for example and the tunic design) 
but far more telling are the features. Tenniel has the knave 
in the two Trial illustrations sporting a prominently up-turned 
moustache, whereas the Knave of Hearts is wearing a shorter, 
downturned moustache. Also the face of the Knave of Hearts 
(as befitting a tart thief) is considerably plumper than that 
of the knave on trial. There are quite clearly two distinct 
knaves present in the book. 

To the unwary reader, the nonsense element of the 
Knave's trial is the fact that the normal procedures of a court 
of law are reversed - sentence - verdict - evidence. Yet is 
this nonsense? A nursery rhyme is, after all, a closed sys- 
tem. The Knave of Hearts, being a member of this closed 
system has no existence beyond being the member of the 
'set' which stole the tarts. Logically the only evidence re- 
quired is the nursery rhyme itself - and this Carroll duly 
gives us at the opening of the trial. If it is the Knave of Hearts 
before the court, both evidence and verdict are contained 
within the reading of the rhyme. The only possible question 
arising, therefore, is whether the prisoner before the dock 
is the Knave of Hearts - for we know that only the Knave of 
Hearts can be guilty! And, as we have seen, Carroll goes to 
great lengths to create an ambiguity on precisely this issue. 

I would suggest that there are few better examples 
of the dangers inherent in accepting at face value the 'evi- 
dentiary' properties of illustration. In this case, it can be 
seen that the reader's 'reading' of the illustration is deter- 
mined by his own expectations - that the illustration is evi- 
dentiary to an unambiguous text. The illustration refers not 
out from the text to a universe of playing cards and stolen 
tarts (not, of course, Carroll's creation) bui back into the 
body of the written text. The illustration carries an incom- 
plete information structure which renders it meaningless 
as a signifying agent without the additional information con- 
tained in the verbal text and the reader's external knowl- 
edge of the nursery rhyme. What we have are two complex 
but incomplete structures which are mapped onto each other 
in such a way that to each part of one structure there is a 
corresponding part in the other structure. This, of course, 
includes significant absences. 

In his book Godel, Escher, Bach : An Eternal 
Golden Braid, Douglas Hofstadter discusses how formal 
systems come to create meaning. He suggests that a pri- 
mary causative factor is the existence of what he terms 'iso- 
morphic relationships': 

It is cause for joy when a mathematician discovers an 
isomorphism between two structures which he knows. 
It is often a 'bolt from the blue', and a source of 
wonderment. The perception of an isomorphism is a 
significant advance in knowledge - and I claim that it 
is such perceptions of isomorphism which create 
meanings in the minds of people. A final word on the 
perceptions of isomorphisms: since they come in all 
shapes and sizes, figuratively speaking, it is not always 
totally clear when you really have found an isomor- 
phism. Thus isomorphism is a word with all the usual 
vagueness of words - which is a defect but an advan- 
tage as well. 

It is interesting that Hofstadter's book is subtitled 
'A Metaphorical Fugue on Minds and Machines in the Spirit 
of Lewis Carroll', for surely, few writers have so sympa- 
thetically summed up the wonderment and enlightenment 
readers of Carroll's works experience. And few have given 
a better rebuttal of the nature of language as upheld by those 
mentioned earlier in this article. 

This concept of isomorphism, though, as Hofstad- 
ter acknowledges, is generally restricted to a discussion of 
mathematical structures, I feel that his concept of isomor- 
phic generation of meaning can by usefully and most satis- 
fyingly applied to the complex relationship that exists be- 
tween text, illustration and audience. I take Hofstadter to 
mean that understanding arises not through mere physical 
perception (Luke's error) but through a process similar to 
that described by Wittgenstein {op cit). Painters, illustra- 
tors, cartoonists, novelists and other artists utilise this pro- 
cess, translating the world as a complex and shifting series 
of signs and images. The idea of humanity's relationship 
with reality is thus something like a detective story in which 
we are given a series of more or less disconnected clues - 
an incomplete picture from which we form an image of suf- 
ficient coherence that enables us to formulate and negoti- 
ate our existence. 

This theory is used by Umberto Eco {A Theory of 
Semiotics) when discussing his ideas on sign production - 
stressing that the recognisability of a clue is a socially 
learned procession in the first instance: 

Recognition occurs when a given object or event, 
produced by nature or human action (intentionally or 
unintentionally) and existing in a world of facts, 
comes to be viewed by an addressee as the expression 
of a given content, either through a pre-existing and 
coded correlation or through the positing of a pos- 
sible correlation by its addressee. 

Or, rather more succinctly, when posited by a cer- 
tain gentleman at least slightly 'known' to the readers of 
this esteemed journal: 

Still, you know, wor4s mean mot-e than we mean io 
express when we use them: So a whole book ought to 
mean a great cjeal more than the writer meant. 

X.Mannheim, Karl (1893 -1947), German/British sociologist, with 
a theory of language similar to Lukes', though his theories on 
knowledge are termed 'irrationalist' and 'relativist', so in this 
respect has some common ground with Carroll. Best intro: 
Karl Mannheim : The Development of His Thought : 
Philosophy, Sociology and Social Ethics, by H.E.S. 

Althusser, Louis (1918 - 1990), French structuralist/Marxist 
philosopher whose theory of the all-pervasive influence of 
ideology depended on language as able to transmit information 
in an unproblematic way. His influence peaked in the 1970's. 
Best intro: Althusser : A Critical Reader, Gregory Elliott 
(Editor), Blackwell, 1994. 

Ayer, Sir Alfred Jules (1910-1989) British philosopher who is 
credited as the founder of the 'emotivist' school of philosophy, 
(see The Language of Morals, R.M. Hare, Oxford, 1952). 

Lukes, Steven b. 1 94 1 , one of the foremost (if not the foremost) 
of the 'new wave' of philosophers in Oxford. Made his mark 
in the late 60's whilst at Nuffield College. Frustratingly tends 
to confine his ideas to papers and monologues (though he 
has written a definitive analysis of French sociologist and 
philosopher Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). 

Dr John Tufail is Director of Health and Social Policy Studies at 
the Pracyabani Institute, London. He is currently working on a 
book on the philosophy and politics of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson 
under the working title of Lewis Carroll and the Dialectical 
Tradition, of which this article is a precis chapter. Some of the 
material regarding the identity of the Knave was previously 
published in an article in Bandersnatch #106. 

The Jack of the Trial (above) and of the Croquet-Ground (below) 

Dodgson's Adventures in Therapy 

Jonathan Dixon 

"What do you mean by that/" said the Caterpillar sternly. 

"Explain yourself!" 

As a counselor and psychotherapist by trade, I've 
always been jointly interested in, and suspicious of, attempts 
to apply psychological theories to literature and authors. 
Being a storehouse of human experience in concentrated 
form, the literary history of the world is a gold mine for the 
psychologically-oriented to explore. (The fact that 
psychologists rarely explore it is a topic for another, nastier 
essay!) On the other hand, the exploration should be done 
with common sense and discretion. Anyone who has read 
an extreme Freudian's analysis of Alice will share my 
inclination to become nauseated. 

Recently it occurred to me to explore Charles 
Dodgson in the light of a certain conceptual model I use in 
my own counseling work and — rather to my surprise — 
I found that sev- 
eral seemingly 
aspects of 

Lewis Carroll, 
and the phenom- 
enon of Carroll- 
ian studies as a 
whole, started 
falling into 
place and mak- 
ing sense. 

some necessary 
background: In 
my training I 
became familiar 
with a person- 
ality assessment 
known as the 
Type Indicator® (MBTI), based on the personality type 
model of Carl Jung. It was an eye-opener, helping me to 
make sense of conflicting tendencies in peoples' behavior. 

The MBTI measures a person on four different 





Each scale is a continuum, and is often measured 
as a percentage. For example, a 50% score on the 
Extraversion/Introversion scale would indicate a person 
fairly balanced in those qualities, while an 89% on the N- 
scale indicates a highly intuitive person. In non-technical 
terms, each scale can be described as follows: 

Extraversion/Introversion: Contrary to popular 

"They had not gone far before they 
and lonely on a little ledge of rock. . 

belief, this does not simply refer to whether a person is 
outgoing or shy. Extraversion and Introversion refer to a 
person's basic orientation to the world. Is his mental energy 
mostly focused on things outside himself, or on his own 
thoughts, feelings, and ideas? 

Sensing/Intuition: This refers to the way a person 
picks up information about the world. Sensing is just what 
it sounds like. A person strong in this area is sensitive to 
colors, sounds, and so on. After meeting a stranger, a 
strongly sensing person would be able to describe the 
encounter in very concrete, vivid terms. 

An intuitive person, on the other hand, might not 
notice even obvious details. However, she would be able to 
describe the overall feeling of the encounter in very subtle 
terms: what the mood was, how it changed, and so on. 
Intuition tends to be holistic, sensitive to overall patterns 
and relationships. 

Thinking/Feeling: After a person has picked up inform- 
ation, what does 
he do with it? 
How are decis- 
ions made? 
Thinking and 
Feeling are 
what are com- 
monly referred 
to as "head" and 
"heart." A think- 
ing person en- 
gages the world 
in a logical 
manner based 
on reason. Oth- 
ers might des- 
cribe him as 
"objective" or 

does not refer 
only to 

emotion, although that plays a large part. It is very much 
related to nonrational impulses, "gut feelings" and values. 
A feeling person may be able to list a million logical reasons 
why he should do something, but if his gut feeling says to 
do the illogical thing, the feeling will win out. Often the 
only explanation is, "it felt right." 

Judging/Perceiving: These words refer to a 
person's preference for orderliness and resolution. A judging 
person likes things structured and defined, and likes labels 
and categories. She is someone who plans out a detailed 
itinerary for a vacation. She is fastidious and likes boundaries 
and rules. Judging breaks things down and separates. 

A strongly perceiving person gets anxious if things 
are too structured or defined. He improvises, and is 
comfortable with ambiguity and lack of resolution. He likes 
exceptions and diffuse boundaries. Perceiving integrates and 
looks for relatedness among parts. 

saw the Mock Turtle sitting sad 
" by Jonathan Dixon 

Based on the preferences expressed in a series of 
questions, the MBTI assigns a person to one of sixteen 
possible personality types — ESTP, ISTP, ENTP, and so on. 
These are not meant to slap simplistic labels on people, but 
rather are meant as a tool for self-exploration. In marriage 
counseling, for example, they might help a couple 
understand areas of conflict, as in the case of a judging 
husband and a perceiving wife who experience a lot of 
friction deciding what to do with vacation time. Each 
personality type has its own general description, and I've 
found that these can be very accurate, almost to the point of 

(One important thing to remember about the 
different types is that there is no judgment involved. High 
or low scores do not indicate positive or negative qualities. 
Rather, each of the eight poles has its own potential strengths 
and weaknesses. The ideal is to develop flexibility, and to 
be able to draw on 
each quality when 
appropriate. I should 
also note that, unlike 
more questionable 
typological systems 
like astrology or 
numerology, MBTI 
categories are de- 
scriptive, not explan- 
atory: instead of say- 
ing, "this person is a 
Pisces; therefore he 
behaves this way," the 
MBTI says, "this 
person shows these 
preferences; there- 
fore we will call him 
an ENFJ"). 
Lewis Carroll 

Let's apply 
this model to Lewis 
Carroll, then. Among the 16 possible personality types, 
which type was Charles Dodgson? 

The first two scales are fairly easy to guess. Carroll 
was obviously an introvert (I) who lived in his inner world 
of ideas, dreams, and feelings. That was his reality, where 
his energy tended to be focused. ("Life, what is it but a 
dream?") While he was active and involved in his external 
world of Oxford, he was still primarily a private person who 
seemed to prefer to create his own world away from the 

Carroll also seems to have been intuitive (N). This 
is reflected in his writings, which tend not to contain much 
in the way c: descriptive detail. Carroll was not big on florid 
prose. However, his writings demonstrate the intuitive 's gift 
for empathy and character — sensing what is going on inside 
people and sizing up situations. He was not a superficial 
writer; he had the introverted intuitive 's gift for creating 
works of archetypal imagery and power. 

Moving to the third scale, Thinking-Feeling, things 
get trickier. However, to me this scale is the key to the 
Carroll/Dodgson "paradox" or "dichotomy" we hear so much 

My first thought was that Carroll must have been 
fairly balanced between thinking and feeling. After all, he 
was a logician, able to think very rationally and precisely. 
At the same time, however, he showed strong feeling in his 
works and relationships. 

The more I pondered this, though, the more I began 
to feel that Carroll was actually very strongly an F — that 
this was probably his greatest imbalance. This reasoning may 
seem confusing on the surface, but let me explain: 

People who are extreme on the Feeling scale feel 
a lot. Consequently, they tend toward the melancholy, 
romantic attitude so prevalent in Carroll's writing. This is 
not affectation; in fact this seemingly maudlin view of the 

world is com- 
pletely genuine. 
And when com- 
bined with an 
introverted (I) and 
intuitive (N) nature, 
things get worse, 
for you have 
someone liable to 
drown in feeling. 
The INF is 
hypersensitive to 
the feelings of 

especially their 
suffering — and is 
often a 

empathic and 
individual. This 
quality is obvious 
in Carroll's sensitive, caring attitude toward people and 
animals, and in the melancholy he displays in watching his 
child friends lose their innocence. 

Extreme Fs can be tormented people, and to 
compensate for this it is very common for them to develop 
very strong thinking sides — protective shells of logic and 
objectivity. Thus, on the surface they often seem rational 
and distant. Underneath, however, feeling still reigns 
supreme. (The opposite is usually not true, by the way. Since 
people are rarely tormented by too much logic, extreme Ts 
tend not to develop compensating feeling sides.) 

This leads to a key point in considering Lewis 
Carroll: while extreme Fs may be able to think very logically 
and rationally, their logic and rationality still exist in the 
service of feeling. Feeling is still primary. As a result, Fs 
(and NFs especially) can be very, very good at creating 

Lewis Carroll displays this thinking-in-the- 

"It's all his fancy, that: he hasn'tgotno sorrow, you know.'" by Jonathan Dixon 

service of feeling. Feeling is still primary. As a result, Fs 
(and NFs especially) can be very, very good at creating 

Lewis Carroll displays this thinking-in-the- 
service-of-feeling in two exemplary ways: 

1 . Like NFs in general, he uses language poetically. 
He uses words, the building blocks of logic and 
rationality, as not just a means to convey 
information, but as sounds to stir the emotions — 
to the point of even making up his own. In this his 
writing is at times similar to music; there is meaning 
there, but it is a right-brained, non-rational, non- 
verbal meaning, like the meaning in a Bach fugue, 
not necessarily a left-brained, verbal meaning. 

2. Carroll also carries logic and literalness to such 
extremes that it becomes anti-logic — non-sense 
— and he does this for emotional effect, usually 
humor, but also poignancy. (For an NF, logic is 
optional — "Sometimes I've believed as many as six 
impossible things before breakfast.") 

Let me give two examples of typical NF nonsense 
from my own life. My brother and I enjoy twisting logic to 
throw people for a loop. For example, we have a droll running 
joke that goes something like: "Hey! I have a tie exactly 
like yours, except it's in the form of a car and I drive it." 
This statement is clearly nonsensical — yet it is still 
completely logically valid. 

Or here's a question my brother posed: "If I went 
and put a tea bag in the lake, would the whole lake become a 
very weak tea?" These sort of statements are both logical 
and nonsensical — depending on the arbitrary definitions 
one decides to bring to them. Carroll was the master of this 
kind of nonsense logic. In this he was actually similar to 
Zen teachers with their koans ("What is the sound of one 
hand clapping?"), for the purpose of such non-sense is to 
turn logic against itself, toward the purpose of making the 
student hit a rational brick wall and break through to a 
nonrational {i.e. intuitive-feeling) level of understanding. 
Again, thinking in the service of feeling. 

On the last of the four scales, Judging-Perceiving, 
I would guess Carroll was fairly balanced, but tending toward 
J. He was notoriously fastidious and organized; yet, he could 
also be comfortable with ambiguity and lack of resolution, 
for a number of his poems don't actually end, but just stop, 
unresolved; or else they don't actually tell the reader what 
is going on, leaving one feeling one has come in in the 
middle of something. The fluid, dreamlike structures of the 
Alice books and Sylvie and Bruno also reflect a perceiver's 
experience of reality. 

My conclusion then: Lewis Carroll was an INFJ. 
Having hazarded that, I proceeded to look up the INFJ 
description — and it fits him to a "t". Some quotes: 
"The small number of this type [1% of the 
population] is regrettable, since INFJs have an 
unusually strong drive to contribute to the welfare 
of others and genuinely enjoy helping their fellow 

men. This type has great depth of personality; they 
are themselves complicated, and can understand and 
deal with complex issues and people." 

"INFJs are usually good students, achievers who 
exhibit an unostentatious creativity. They take then- 
work seriously and enjoy academic activity. They can 
exhibit qualities of over-perfectionism and put more 
into a task than perhaps is justified by the nature of 
the task." 

"INFJs are hard to get to know. They have an unusually 
rich inner life, but they are reserved and tend not to 
share their reactions except with those they trust. 
Because of their vulnerability through a strong 
facility to introject, INFJs can be hurt rather easily 
by others, which, perhaps, is at least one reason they 
tend to be private people ... They have convoluted, 
complex personalities which sometimes puzzle even 

"INFJs have vivid imaginations exercised both as 
memory and intuition, and this can amount to genius, 
resulting at times in INFJs being seen as mystical. 
This unfettered imagination often will enable this 
person to compose complex and often aesthetic 
works of art such as music, mathematical systems, 
poems, plays, and novels. In a sense, the INFJ is the 
most poetic of all the types." 

"As with all NFs, the ministry holds attraction, 
although the INFJ must develop an extraverted role 
here which requires a great deal of energy. INFJs 
may be attracted to writing as a profession, and often 
use language which contains an unusual degree of 
imagery. They are masters of the metaphor, and both 
their verbal and written communications tend to be 
elegant and complex. Their great talent for language 
usually is directed toward people, describing people 
and writing to communicate with people in a 
personalized way. INFJs who write comment often 
that they write with a particular person in mind; 
writing to a faceless, abstract audience leaves them 

"Often INFJs' expressions of affection will be subtle, 
taking a humorous, unexpected turn ... Their 
friendship circle is likely to be small, deep, and long- 
standing ... INFJs tend to be good friends with their 
children, while firm with discipline." 1 

Let's turn now to those who respond to Carroll's 
writings. Which personality types love Carroll, and why? 
Why such a universal fascination with his works? 

I will begin by guessing that most CarroIIians, like 
Carroll himself, tend toward the IN ends of the scales. I 
make this assumption for the simple reason that very 
extraverted (E) and sensing (S) people tend not to spend 
their time reading, let alone reading children's fantasy books. 
ESs are the ones who can't fathom CarroIIians' fascination 


with Alice: "It's just a story! It's not real!" They don't realize 
that to INs the imaginal world is very real, and that Humpty 
Dumpty is probably more real than many people met on the 
street. (To be fair, though, INs tend to see ESs as concrete, 
shallow, and unimaginative, and can't fathom their 
fascination with things. I wonder if more extraverted 
Carrollians become the collectors, while more introverted 
ones focus primarily on the texts?) 

In light of the exploration above, it is not hard to 
see why Carroll should be so enduringly popular among such 
a variety of people, for among INFJs he seems to have been 
singular in his ability to hit the extremes of both the Thinking- 
Feeling and Judging-Perceiving poles in his writings. Thus, 
not only can INFJs claim him as one of their own, but so 
also can INTJs, INFPs, and INTPs. His writings literally have 
something for everyone, and this is reflected in the different 
areas of emphasis among Carroll scholars. 

To give examples of the best of these, I think of 
Martin Gardner and Morton Cohen. I label them among the 
best because, though they have very different interests 
regarding Carroll, each shows a healthy respect for the 
other's area of study. 

Martin Gardner probably shows a more TJ interest 
in Carroll, doing exactly what one would expect a thinking- 
judging Carrollian to do: he annotates and solves puzzles. 
He is more left-brained and intellectual in his focus. He 
breaks down a text word-by-word, explains jokes, and defines 

Morton Cohen probably provides an example of 
an FP Carrollian. He is a biographer, more of a right-brained 
poet. He is interested in the feelings and motivations behind 
the works. He wants to know Carroll's story, to understand 
the human being behind the text. He looks at all aspects of 
Charles Dodgson's life and integrates them into a 
comprehensive picture. 

Differences in temperament can divide as well as 
unite Carrollians, however, causing friction. For example, a 
Carrollian very high on the Thinking and Judging scales 
would tend to see everything in Carroll's works as a puzzle 
to be solved rationally, and would assume that Carroll 
composed his works in the same rationalist manner in which 
he himself reads them. An extreme FP Carrollian, on the 
other hand, might be a saccharine Bessie Pease Gutmann- 
like illustrator who responds to all the sentiment and 
zaniness, but completely misses the rigorous intellect also 
found in Carroll's works. 

In this light it becomes obvious why some 
Carrollian debates, such as a debate about "meaning" in 
Carroll's work, can never be resolved: we have different 
types of people debating from completely different value 
systems, definitions, and sets of ground rules ... all the time 
thinking tl ey're talking about the same thing. 

Meanwhile, in reality, Carroll was very likely 
indulging in all sets of antithetical values and ground rules 
at the same time. And he was doing it so successfully, 
melding them with such a natural ease — at least in his 
greatest works — that it is impossible to consider his 

opposing aspects separately, one apart from another. 

Such a human koan can't help but inspire 

1. Quotes taken from Please Understand Me: Character and 
Temperament Types, by David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates 
(Prometheus Nemesis Book Company, 1984). 

You can take the MBTl online at 

The mutitalented Jonathan Dixon is a therapist practicing in Santa 
Fe, an artist whose designs grace this very article, and a promising 
sculptor (see Carollian Notes, p. 1 8). 


<$n gjpfzmoiriam 

Sir (Arthur) John Gielgud (1904-21 May), one 
of the 20 th century's finest actors, came by his 
Carrollian credits at birth as the son of Kate Terry- 
Lewis, who as a child posed for CLD, and as the 
great-nephew of Ellen Terry. He played Humpty 
Dumpty at Hillside preparatory school and went 
on to be the Mock Turtle in Jonathan Miller's 1967 
TV adaptation, record a 2-hour abridged A W on 
audio CDs for Nimbus (NI 5046/7), and be the co- 
narrator on Mike Batt's 1986 Hunting of the Snark 

Charles Schultz (1922 - 12 February), creator of 
the beloved comic "Peanuts", often affectionately 
referred to Carroll's characters, particularly in his 
creation of the "Cheshire Beagle". 


From the Christian Science Monitor, June 29, 2000: 
"She put her hand in her pocket, drew out the key, and 
found that it fitted the keyhole. She turned the key. And 
then she took a deep breath and looked behind her up the 
long walk to see if anyone was coming. No one was. She 
held back the swinging curtain . . . and pushed the door, 
which opened slowly . . . slowly. Then she slipped through 
it, shut it behind her, and stood with her back against it, 
looking about her and breathing quite fast with excitement 
and wonder and delight. She was standing inside..." what? 

Answer on p. 15 


Leaves from the Deanery Garden 

May I make a comment on the letter from Peter Heath about 
the BBC Antiques Roadshow on PBS (shown in the U.K. 
many months ago)? The hoard of photographs '"til now 
unknown to the experts" is, in fact, well-known to me and 
others (Morton includes some in his edition of The Letters 
of Lewis Carroll). The "elderly geezer" is Dr. Rogers, a 
great-nephew of Annie Mary Ann Henley Rogers (1856- 
1937), an early child-friend of Lewis Carroll. He loaned 
the photographs to an exhibition at Christ Church some years 
ago, and that is when I first saw the originals. I did some 
research to help with the captions. Annie was the only 
daughter of James Edwin Thorold Rogers (1822-90), profes- 
sor of political economy at Oxford. She had four brothers. 
The nude photograph mentioned by Peter was one of her 
brothers, Betram Mitford Heron 
Rogers (b.1860). Yes! A boy! but 
only one year old when the 
photograph was taken. I have a note 
of another boy nude photograph 
taken by Carroll in my database, a 
child of Professor Brodie. So 
maybe this will help to lay some 
rather out-of-date myths to rest. 
The Rogers collection of 
photographs is now on semi- 
permanent loan to the Library, 
Christ Church. 

The Tumtum Tree, edited by the 
talented Mickey Salins, is a 
welcome addition to your 
publication; anything to encourage 
new Carrollians is to be applauded. 
However, the puzzle taken from my 
edition of The Alice in 
Wonderland Puzzle and Game 
Book is not by Lewis Carroll. It is, 
dare I say it, my own invention. 

Edward Wakeling 

In reference to the remarks about truth tables in the latest 
issue [KL 63, p. 17], this may be of interest. Bede Bundle, in 
his article on the history of logic in The Encyclopedia of 
Philosophy, Vol. 4, p. 559, credits Emil Post with being the 
first to make systematic use of truth tables in a 1920 article. 
Wittgenstein, at about the same time, independently made 
similar use of truth tables. However, this method of 
evaluating truth tables was known to Charles Pierce, Lewis 
Carroll, George Boole, and other nineteenth century 

For a full discussion of Carroll's Game of Logic, and the 
closely related Venn diagrams, see Chapter 2 of my Logic 
Machines and Diagrams [McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958]. 

In the note at p. 18 of the current Knight Letter (63), about 
The Times'" attempt to whip up rivalry between Llandudno 
and Whitby, you refer to the availability of a Whitby White 
Rabbit Trail booklet. 

I take the opportunity to remind you of Llandudno 's Alice 
Trail - the sub-title of my Alice 's Welsh Wonderland, writ- 
ten and published for last year's summer seminar of the 
Lewis Carroll Society (U.K.), which was held at Llandudno 
(having been arranged over dinner at the Plaza Hotel, New 
York, during our 1998 LCSNA meeting). 

I still have a few copies, price £2.50 + £1 postage (Sterling 
cheque, only), or $5 in US bank notes (but not a $ check). 
You may recall that my booklet contained several rare pic- 
tures and lots of previously unpublished information. 

Ivor Wynne Jones 
Pegasus, 7 1 Llandudno Road 
Penrhyn Bay, Llandudno 
LL30 3HN 
North Wales, U.K. 

I was in Berkeley today and 
picked up a shockingly 
expensive little book called 
The Fantasy Literature of 
England. Published by 
Macmillan, written by a 
Colin Manlove! How that 
name haunts me. It looks 
great and it does have some 
stuff about Alice. His 
contention is that the 
English character and land- 
scape are responsible for the 
creation of the successful 
genre. Which is my position 
exactly, so I plunked down 
another $50. Lots of Carroll 
in there, of course, and 
Gothic literature. 

Dayna and I had a good time in New York. We visited the 
Alice statue in Central Park (and the Queen of Hearts 
fountain) so we missed you all at the party. The last morning 
we went to the Village to have breakfast with her Sherlockian 
friends. Always on the lookout for anything that relates to 
Alice and her creator, we discovered Ricky's, a delightful 
emporium with a plate glass window that said, in gilded Art . 
Nouveau lettering: "Step Through the Looking Glass into 
Ricky's Wonderland". From the window display, I would 
guess that this is the place where queens of all kinds buy 
their wigs, eyelashes, makeup, etc. 

Cindy (Watter) 

All best, 

Martin (Gardner) 


Ever since Knight Letter 42 I have kept an eye out for 
evidence of the importance of the number forty-two beyond 
CLD's writings. My best catch so far antedates AW by a few 
millennia. Though this passage describes one belief of 
ancient Egyptians about the afterlife, to me it has a Carrollian 
flavor beyond the prominence of The Number: 

"Followers of Osiris believed that when they died they had 
to stand before him and have their hearts weighed on the 
Scales of Judgment against the feather of truth. The jackal- 
headed god, Anubis, did the weighing and Thoth, the baboon- 
headed god, recorded the result. If they failed the weighing, 
which they would do if they had failed to follow the forty- 
two commandments of Ra, they were thrown to Am-mut- 
the Eater of the Dead-part lion, part crocodile, and part 
hippo. If they passed, they stayed forever in paradise with 
Osiris in the Fields of Peace (the Greeks took this theme 
further with their Elysian Fields)." ~ Richard Craze, Hell: 
An Illustrated History of the Netherworld (Berkeley, 
California: Conari Press, 1996). 

I wonder if Ra's forty-two rules were as difficult to obey as 
those for some of CLD's invented games! 

Gary Brockman 


Have you ever thought about what actually happens in those 
two "bookend" scenes between Alice and her sister, 
bracketing Wonderland? How different they are? The 
duplications in some wording? Why dead leaves fall onto 
Alice from a budding tree in Mayl 

I will be interested to see if you get any Virgilian answers 
to that question. People notice mythic qualities to Alice - 
she drops underground like Persephone, and looks a good 
bit like a junior Circe when a piglet materializes. In the 
Aeneid the Cumaen Sybil, a priestess to Apollo, wrote her 
prophecies upon dead leaves, kept them for a time, and then 
carelessly let them fly through the world. This Sybil became 
Aeneas' guide into the underworld. 

Chloe Nichols 

Does anyone know if the computer solitaire game with Alice 
characters played by Michelle Pfeiffer's character in What 
Lies Beneath exists outside the world of the film? I trust 
my wife and I weren't hallucinating when we recognized an 
assembly of Alice characters on the bottom of the monitor 
below the digital card-faces just before "Claire Spencer's" 
power went off. From what I know of other films, the 
computer image could well have been created, with an 
indulgence of the designer's private interests or the crew's 
private jokes, solely for its moment in the film. 

By the way, Knight Letter keeps topping itself. 

Gary Brocklin 

Would you be interested in asking your readers which Alice 
character they think should match which constellation? I 
believe it would point to the fact that Carroll did use the 
constellations as a reference - or unconsciously, as by going 
into his imagination (microcosm) he inadvertently went 
through to the macrocosm as the two are one and the same 
while we all dream this dream called life. 

James B. Thomas 

James is the creator of the Lewis Carroll Celestial Globes 
("Far-flung", p. 23). Some of the easier pairings are 
given there - he'd like to know what other characters 
Carrollians think go with what Zodiacal constellations. 

From an exchange of eMails : 

I am an attorney in Ft. Worth, Texas and I am writing an 
article on the use of the writings of Lewis Carroll and Mark 
Twain in legal opinions. I was hoping you could point me to 
some good sources of information. I am using the usual 
search engines for legal research, i.e. Westlaw, but really 
want to go beyond merely quoting the references to Alice, 
Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn. I found your "To Stop a 
Bandersnatch" interesting and thought you might have some 
suggestions. I have had an interest in Alice and Carroll for 
several years. 

Thank you. 


There are a couple of articles cited in Fordyce that might 
be helpful: 

• 82 1 : "Dreams and Law Courts" by Elizabeth Sewell in 
The Logic of Personal Knowledge: Essays Presented 
to Michael Polanyi on his Seventieth Birthday 
(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961, 179-88) 

• 958: "A Lawyer's Alice" by Glanville L. Williams in 
the Cambridge Law Journal (England) v.9, no. 2 
(1946): 171-84. 

If this person needs the impetus and influence of the legal 
system on Carroll and his writings, then he should refer to 
Lewis Carroll's Diaries, in which visits to law courts and 
assizes are recorded. In my footnotes I have tried to give 
further background by quoting the reports given in local 
newspapers at the time of these events, providing the names 
of defendants, their supposed crimes, and the outcomes and 
penalties given if proved guilty. There can be no doubt that 
Carroll was fascinated by the legal system. We must not 
forget that members of his extended family worked in the 
legal profession {e.g. Uncle Hassard was a barrister; his 
cousin Amy Menella Dodgson married (Sir) Charles Edward 
Pollock, a judge in the High Court and the last Baron of the 
Court of Exchequer). 

Edward (Wakeling) 


Joel Birenbaum then posted the following: 

• Wouldn 't it be Murder? A talk presented to the LCSNA 
at its first meeting in Canada, on May 12, 1990 by Joe 
Brabant. Toronto: Cheshire Cat Press 1999. Wood 
engravings by George Walker. Limited to 177 copies. 
Should be available from george _walker@ 

• Alice in Justice-Landby Jake Falstaff. NY: ACLU 1935 

• "Alice in Mergerland ". Mergers and Acquisitions The 
Journal of Corporate Venture 2 (Fall 1966) 24-27 

• "Medical Law & Regulation in Wonderland" by George 
LeMaitre. Private Practice, 8 (Nov 1976) 17, 21, 25. 

• Alice's Adventures in Jurisprudentia by Peter Sloss. 
Belvedere, CA: Borogove Press, 1982. 87 pp. 

/ find the depth of knowledge and willingness to help 
among our membership quite breathtaking at times. 
St. Clair, who is also a photographer and student of 
photographic history, has joined the LCSNA as a result 
of this dialog. Welcome! 

Do you know whether Charles Dodgson wrote about 
America, especially the Civil War and/or America's struggles 
with the "Negro problem"? 

mark and patty 

I posted this to the LC eGroup (see p. 20) and got the 
following replies. Any other input would be appreciated. 

As far as I know he never wrote anything publicly on this 
point, but in case this is of interest, he owned two books, 
one called Appeal to Pharaoh: the Negro problem and its 
radical solution (author unknown, at least to Jeffrey Stern 
and me), and The Pro-Slavery Argument as maintained by 
the most distinguished writers of the Southern States 
(Harper, Hammond, Sims et al.y 

On 5 April 1864 he wrote in his diary, "... (met) a Mr 
Macfarland from Richmond (America), secretary to Mr 
Mason, the Confederate Commissioner. I was very glad of 
getting an opportunity of discussing the question of slavery, 
for the first time, with an actual slave-holder." 

Mike (Leach) 

Appeal to Pharaoh etc. was written by Carlyle McKinley 
(1847-1904) and was republished in 1970 by Negro 
Universities Press under the editorship of G. M. Pinckney. 

Mark (Burstein) 

I find Carroll's interest in the 'Slavery Question' (no matter 
how slightly referenced) of overwhelming interest. I wonder 
if this guy Macfarland left a diary or papers recording his 
recollections of his conversation with Carroll? Might be 
worth some enterprising US scholar chasing up. I suspect 
that Carroll's views on slavery would be quite complex and 
not merely a simple pro- or anti- response. 

John Tufail 

marlow: {Voice over) "And so the man went down the hole, 
like Alice. But there were no bunny rabbits down there. It 
wasn't that sort of hole. It was a rat-hole." 

~ "The Singing Detective", Dennis Potter 

"You take the blue pill and the story ends. You wake in your 
bed and you believe whatever you want to believe. You take 
the red pill and you stay in Wonderland and I show you how 
deep the rabbit-hole goes." 

~ "The Matrix", A. & L. Wachowski 

«? *** 

X 7 

"When I wasn't in the stacks or working in the rare book 
room, where my principal job seemed to be watering the 
sponges that provided a rudimentary kind of climate control 
in the glass-covered bookcases, I was lounging in the 
browsing room, which offered not only a marvelously 
eclectic collection of books but also the most comfortable 
leather chairs I've ever sunk into. It was there, one 
luxuriously lazy afternoon, that I read in a single sittings/Zee 
in Wonderland, a book I had struggled to read as a kid but 
to no avail. For me, the right time to read Alice turned out 
to be that undergraduate afternoon in the Deering Library." 

~ Michael Cart 

" A Clean, Well Lighted Sanctuary" 

Booklist, April 15, 2000 

Michael is the recipient of this year's Grolier Award for 
his outstanding "contribution to the stimulation and 
guidance of reading by children. " 


Carmela Ciuraru asked dozens of poets to answer the 
question: "What poem has haunted you, provoked you, 
obsessed you, made you want to speak back to it?" These, 
she claims, are the poems rightly called "first loves", for 
they "are the ones that remain at the center of writers ' 
emotional landscapes, and no matter how widely they 
range as writers and readers, it is to these they return. " 
First Loves was published this year in book form by 
Scribner, and excerpted in the American Poetry Review, 
Nov/Dec99, Vol. 28 Issue 6. Here is Joyce Carol Oates: 

There are two types of influences in the life of a 
writer: those influences that come so early in childhood, 
they seem to soak into the very marrow of our bones and to 
condition our interpretation of the universe thereafter; and 
those that come a little later, when we can exercise more 
control of our environment and our response to it, and have 
begun to be aware of the strategies of art. 


My discovery of poetry — or of verse — came 
when I was very young. In 1946, for my eighth birthday, my 
grandmother gave me a beautiful illustrated copy of Lewis 
Carroll's Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking- 
Glass. This book with its handsome cloth cover embossed 
with bizarre creatures, and the astonished Alice in their 
midst, was the great treasure of my childhood. This was love 
at first sight. (I may have fallen in love with the very concept 
of Book, too.) Like Alice, I plummeted headfirst down the 
rabbit hole and/or climbed boldly through the mirror into 
the looking-glass world and, in a manner of speaking, never 
entirely returned to real life. My heroine was this strangely 
assured, courageous young girl of about my age I would not 
have guessed was of another culture and distinctly of another 
economic class; I most admired her for her curiosity (which 
mirrored my own) and for the equanimity with which she 
confronted dream- and nightmare 
situations (as I could never have done). 
Within a few months I'd memorized 
much of both Alice books, and could 
recite, for anyone willing to listen, 
nearly all the poems. 

The first Wonderland poem, 
which must be the first poem of my 
life, looks, strangely, to a 
contemporary adult eye, like 
experimental verse by (possibly) e. e. 
cummings or William Carlos 
Williams. This curiosity, which 
fascinated me as a child and inspired 
me to much imitation, is meant to 
replicate a mouse's long tail, 
dwindling down the page until its final, 
mordant words are set in miniature 
type, hardly readable. In Lewis 
Carroll's children's classic there is much seemingly 
incongruous concern with dying and death and being eaten; 
Wonderland is also concerned with justice, not ordinarily a 
concept one associates with children. But here is a 
seemingly playful poem that suggests the cruelty and 
injustice of the world as perceived by the mouse (child?) 
victim, helpless at the hands (or jaws) of the oppressor. The 
poem dramatizes a cat named Fury in his confrontation with 
an anonymous mouse/victim: "Fury said to / a mouse, That / 
he met / in the / house..." and ends with the cryptic words, 
'"and / condemn / you / to / death.'" Children's literature, 
especially in the past, didn't shrink from depictions of 
cruelty and sadism; Lewis Carroll, in whom the child-self 
abided through his celibate lifetime, understood 
instinctively the child's propensity to laugh at the very things 
that arouse anxiety, like outrageous injustice, sudden death, 
disappearing, being devoured. Most of the celebrated Alice 
poems seem whimsical unless you examine them more 
closely. Many depict abrupt outbursts of temper or reversals 
of fortune so swift they appear comic: "Be off, or I'll kick 
you downstairs"; " Speak roughly to your little boy, / And 
beat him when he sneezes; / He only does it to annoy, / 

As a child as young 
as eight I may have 
been imbued with an 
indelible sense of 
playfulness and 
morbidity, in about 
equal measure. But 
isn't this, Lewis 
Carroll would inquire 
pleasantly, simply the 
way the world is? 

Because he knows it teases." The more blatant the rhyme 
the more it appeals to childish ear; one reason why blatant 
rhymes offend us when we're adults and seemingly in need 
of more subtlety and modulation in the music of poetry. 

But it was the sharply rhymed and accented 
"Jabberwocky" that made the most profound impression on 
me. For young children, whose brains are struggling to 
comprehend language, words are magical in any case; the 
magic of adults, utterly mysterious; no child can distinguish 
between "real" words and nonsensical or "unreal" words, 
and verse like Lewis Carroll's brilliant " Jabberwocky" has 
the effect of both arousing childish anxiety (what do these 
terrifying words mean?) and placating it (don't worry: you 
can decode the meaning by the context). In The Annotated 
Alice, by Martin Gardner, footnotes for "Jabberwocky" cover 
several pages in small type; it's considered the greatest 
nonsense poem in English. I was 
fascinated by the bizarre, secret 
language and by the poem's 
dreamlike violent action, depicted in 
the most hideous of John Tenniel's 
drawings, of a grotesque winged 
monster with a tail like a python and 
gigantic claws, confronted by a very 
small boy with a sword. I must have 
liked it, thoughtful child that I was, 
to be told that, "vorpal sword in 
hand," the young hero rested "by the 
Tumtum tree, /And stood awhile in 
thought." The entire poem is 
irremediably imprinted in my 
memory, who knows why? It's a 
fantasy of a child's successful 
defense against the (adult) unknown, 
perhaps. It's a parody of heroic 
adventure tales. But I think, for me, it was the language that 
most fascinated: "One, two! One, two! / And through and 
through / The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! / He left it 
dead, and with its head / He went galumphing back." 

How has Lewis Carroll's verse influenced my 
poetry? Has there been any direct influence at all? It may be 
that the Alice books have more influenced my philosophical/ 
metaphysical perspective on life than my poetry. At the peri- 
phery of many of my poems and works of fiction, as in the 
corner of an eye, there is often an element of the grotesque 
or surreal. As a child as young as eight I may have been 
imbued with an indelible sense of playfulness and morbidity, 
in about equal measure. But isn't this, Lewis Carroll would 
inquire pleasantly, simply the way the world is? 


Answer to Quiz, p. 1 1 

The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett (1911) 


jvty ^^laL* 5 "^ AUce., 

^ wrote. to you. cssu.e. aJrout Tny f~rie.nxL 
Ja.*. (from. voLo so cu.njUnj$ly cou.nste.-r- 
f-e.cte.d -my writing in, a. fonst fo-r ' corn put e.-rs 
-ru-nsUnq IzJSfjt QWc7iJ.ows) o-r "jvra.cs". J* Lave. se.nst 
Lim some. Tno-re. -ma.te.-ria.l, a.nJ. Le. '/^l IcinAly 
p-roJLu.ce.JL a.njotLe.'r version. (ll)> witL tLe. ca.pita.1 
4£* "X M (T La.J 1re.e.n. gf-sest T cou.lJ.nlt 
spe.ll "X<ie'0 «r a.n. a.rnpe.-rs<<^' <* Le. La.s a.lso ma-Je. 
a. fonst "Lew^s Ca.-r-roll Din^s 
vvLicL Lave. a. @ of- little. J-rawin^s of- min.e.! 
<£P some. fv-OLctcons, like. 'Jf, /&, V* '• You. ca.n. 
U( ^\-loa.cC i tLem. f~rom Lsttp-.//ww*).$e.o cities. com/ 
a.tLe.njs/pa.nstLe.0 n./£8l-Z/ca.-r-rollf-o n±/. 

By tLe. way, u.nJLe.-rtook tLis p-roJe.ct J"-st 
to /-z. a.n. on.Un.e. ima^e. of- " 'Alice. s A<Lve.n±u--re.s 
u.nJLe.-r Gr-rou-nJ? In. IEspe.-ra.nSUo! 
'Xou.-r a.-<Mftinj§ f~rie.nxl, 

* tLose a.-re. f£ tPunk tLey Involve Cf^Cf** trut 
nx>t, so foL-r as W ££', ^)®« J y -m.a.7t.y 
people a.-re Offi&O alrout tLe-m.! 

[KL readers may be aware that Carroll used 0^> as his return address "The Chestnuts"] 



& mp3^«< 

Notes from the Underground 

Alice 's Adventures under Ground, a "Cottage Classic" from 
Word-Play Publications (1892847000 he; 1892847019 pb) 

Carroll's holographic Christmas present to Miss 
Liddell has always been treated as a mere curiosity or 
artifact, and has been reproduced in facsimile many times, 
starting with Macmillan in 1886. Now, for the first time, 
the story is treated on its own merits, and has thereby been 
typeset and bound in a single volume with a complete set of 
"commanding... simultaneously charming and bizarre, 
vintage and modern, American and universal" original 
drawings by the talented illustrator/former Underground 
cartoonist Kim Deitch. [quote from Stephanie Lovett] He 
uses the young Alice Liddell as his "model" throughout. This 
issue's covers reproduce two of the pieces. 

Mark Burstein's introduction discusses not only 
Carroll's manuscript and tale, but expands on a comparison 
between the effect her Adventures had on children's 
literature and those the Underground comix movement had 
on the present state of civilization. Under Ground, at half 
the length of Wonderland, preserves more of the freshness 
and spontaneity of that day on the Isis than its later 
incarnation, and Deitch's charming pictures add vivid new 
life to the story. 

It is available in several editions: trade paperback 
($ 1 8); hardcover ($30); signed and numbered ($60); lettered, 
in a slipcase, with a small original drawing ($150); also 
Roman numeralled and packaged with the original art of an 
illustration from the book ($275-$ 1,050). Word-Play, 1 
Sutter Street, San Francisco CA 94104; 415.397.3716; 
415.291.8377 fax;; wordplay@world 

Hochpeinliche Verhore 

Edward D. Hoch, the veteran mystery writer, has 
collected many years of puzzle stories with some Carrollian 
overtones in The Velvet Touch (1885941420, $16, Crippen 
& Landru, All fourteen stories 
feature professional thief Nick Velvet who for a high fee 
will steal only items of little or no monetary value - such 
as a single four of spades playing card - or (in one case) 
nothing at all. In eight stories he competes against or joins 
forces with Sandra Paris, the "White Queen", thief and 
mistress of bizarre crimes, who does "Impossible Things 
Before breakfast". The protagonists must not only 
perpetrate seemingly impossible thefts, solve murders and 
outwit each other, but discover why someone would pay 
dearly to procure something seemingly worthless. 

~ Gary Brockman 

Everything's got a moral 

An article in the New 
York Times on July 3 rd quotes 
Richard Robinson, chairman of 
Scholastic, as saying that the 
new Harry Potter book "is, in 
some ways, in the same vein as 

a classic like Alice in Wonderland. It's a classic tale of good 
and evil. It's about children battling for themselves and for 
good in a world of good and evil." 

That itself is rather scary: the chairman of Scholastic 
either has never read AW or has so little imagination 
and appreciation for linguistic and moral subtleties that 
he thinks of it as some kind of video game. 


In the second edition of Richard L Epstein, and 

Walter A. Carnielli's Comput ability: Computable 

Functions, Logic, and the Foundations of Mathematics, 

Belmont; Wadsworth, 2000, there is an extensively 

annotated timeline that has this entry: 

1897: Methods for checking the validity of deductions in 

aristotelian logic have become well-known. This year the 

English mathematician and author of Alice in Wonderland, 

Lewis Carroll, 1832-1898, presents three of them in his 

popular text on logic, Symbolic Logic: Euler-Venn 

diagrams, Carroll's diagrams and counters, and a method 

of subscripts (algebraic). 

~ Fran Abeles 

Auction Ear 

Denis Crutch, bibliographer and author, long-time 
member of the Lewis Carroll Society (U.K.), sometime 
Chairman and Editor of Bandersnatch, died last year. His 
Lewis Carroll collection came up for sale at Bloomsbury 
Book Auctions, on 15 June 2000. The sale included 
numerous editions of the Alice books, presentation copies, 
first editions, early editions, biographies, ephemera and 
other rarities. 3 & 4 Hardwick Street, London EC1R 4RY, 
U.K.;; +020.7833.2636. 
The first TTLG, inscribed to Mary Burnett, sold for £8,625 
($13,000). The catalog for this sale (#374) is available for 

All Must Have Prizes 

Helen Oxenbury's interpretation of AW has won 
her The Library Association Kate Greenaway Medal for 
outstanding illustration in 2000. Oxenbury had previously 
won the Medal in 1969 for her interpretation of Lear's "The 
Quangle- Wangle's Hat". Helen lives in North London with 
her husband John Burningham, another of this country's best- 


known illustrators, who has himself won the Greenaway 
Medal twice. This year's ceremony, which took place at 
Imperial College, London, was part of "Under the Covers", 
a major conference celebrating children's books and 


Janet Jurist has some inexpensive Russian editions 
from Nina Demurova for sale: 

• Hunting of the Snark: a blue "pamphlet", transl. 
I.Lipkin, ill. L.Zalesskii. Privately printed, 1000 copies 
by Krug (Moscow, 1993). $15. 

• AW & TLG: transl. V.Orel, ill. V.Popova, Iskatel 
(Moscow, 1998). $25. 

• AW & TLG: transl. & afterword by N.Demurova, ill. 
L.Mistratova, Yantarnyi Skaz (Kaliningrad, 1994). $25. 

• AW in English: ill. E.Shukaev, preface by D.Urnov, 
commentaries by L.Golovchinskaya. Progress, 
(Moscow, 1979). $30. 

• AW: transl. and afterword by N.Demurova, ill. I.Kazakova 
(Petrozavodsk, 1979). $25 

• Nina's miniature Russian translation (KL 63, p. 19) is 
also still available. $40. 

Contact Janet at 510 EM* St., New York NY 


Ravings from the Writing Desk 
of Stephanie Lovett 

You can't talk long about Lewis Carroll or the 
LCSNA without having to remark on the diverse interests 
of the people who have Carroll in common. Should you 
doubt this, please examine the program for our Fall meeting 
at the University of Texas in Austin, which will offer 
something for everyone. Every Carrollian should be very 
pleased at the opportunity to visit the library of the Harry 
Ransom Humanities Center and to see the items that they 
will place on exhibit for us. You literary types will be thrilled 
and maybe a little astonished to learn that our second Stan 
Marx Memorial Lecturer will be the distinguished poet 
William Jay Smith. The tech-heads and anyone interested 
in the mechanics of language will be looking forward to our 
panel presentation on the achievements of Warren Weaver, 
whose pioneering years in machine translation may be news 
to those who know of him as the early bibliographer of 
foreign-language Alices. Collectors, computer nuts, and 
everyone who loves the fun side of Carroll will be glad to 
hear we will be spending some time on the work of Byron 

Sewell, and those who are especially interested in the life 
of Lewis Carroll will not want to miss this opportunity to 
hear from Edward Wakeling. This alone should be enough 
to have each and every one of you on the phone getting plane 
tickets, without my mentioning acquiring keepsakes, seeing 
your friends and colleagues, and an evening get-together at 
the Tannenbaums'. Unlike our frequent procedure of 
beginning our program with lunch, this will be an all-day 
affair, so be sure to arrive in Austin the day before! You'll 
be receiving a meeting notice with more details, but plan 
now on being there. See you first thing on October 28! 

Tentative plans for future meetings include New York (the 
Fales library ofN.Y.U.) on April 21, 2001, with talks by 
Morton Cohen, Hugues Lebailly of the Sorbonne, and 
mystery writer Roberta Rogow. Under discussion for the 
Fall '01 venue are various locations on the West Coast. 

Hidden Treasure 

An article just hitting the wires from the Press 
Association service claims "Letters written by children's 
author Lewis Carroll shortly before his death have been 
found in a locked journal and are being heralded as an im- 
portant literary discovery. The five letters, which are more 
than a century old, were found by archivists working in 
Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. 

The letters, written in 1896 and 1897, were hid- 
den in a locked journal inside a casket belonging to the sev- 
enth Duke of Northumberland's mother, Edith. Carroll was 
a friend and contemporary at Oxford University of Henry 
George Percy, later the seventh Duke of Northumberland, 
and one letter is to his young daughter Muriel. 

The journal was discovered by the castle's head 
archivist Colin Shrimpton who had to call in a locksmith to 
open it before finding the treasure inside. 

A spokesman for the twelfth Duke said today: 
'They were found in the locked journal which was in the 
castle archives and had not been opened because we didn't 
have a key. We think it is quite exciting because the final 
letter was written so close to his death and was actually 
signed Lewis Carroll, as opposed to his real name Charles 

One of the letters is a reply to a garden party invi- 
tation. Three others try to persuade Lord Percy and his wife 
Edith to have a portrait painted of their eighth child, Mary. 
The final letter, written at Christmas, 1897 to the couple's 
thirteenth child, Muriel, with which he sent a plum cake is 
thought to be one of his last as he died shortly afterwards 
on January 14, 1898, aged 65. 

Four of the five letters are signed Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson. The final one to Muriel is signed Lewis Carroll. 

Mark Richards, chairman of the Lewis Carroll So- 
ciety (U.K.), said: 'They will help to fill in certain gaps in 
the jigsaw of his life. He was a very prolific letter writer 
with some 50,000 or so letters to his name, so these ones 
are not very rare. What is interesting is that one of them 
was written so close to his death and it must have been one 


of the last few he wrote. Also the way in which they were 
found locked in a journal which had been unopened for so 
many years is like something out of a Carroll book itself 
The letters are on display until the end of October 
at Alnwick Castle as part of an exhibition of children's lit- 

Return of the Monster 

For those of you wondering about the fate of the 
model of the title character from Terry Gilliam's film 
Jabberwocky {KL 61, p.21), it was tracked down by police 
and returned to John Cleese after finding it in an antique 
shop in Ful^am, seven months after the theft. A police source 
said: "How on earth anyone managed to steal it is beyond 
me. It is very hard to shift and we were surprised anyone 
would want such an ugly looking thing. It certainly is an 
acquired taste, but Mr Cleese seems to like it." 

Mason Dixon 

Jonathan Dixon, whose admirable illustrations are 
known to us from his Snark (LCSNA, 1992), La Guida di 
Bragia {KL 61), and this issue (pp. 8-9), has "entered the 
brave new world of three-dimensional art and done a little 
clay bust of Lewis Carroll. [7" tall, photo below]. ..Not 
only does it seem to capture his personality and ineffable 
existential ambience, it actually looks like him. (Stephanie 
said it even looks like my drawing style, but I'm not sure 
what she means by that.) I'm so pleased, in fact, that I recently 
went to a little metal foundry here to enquire about them 
doing a set of bronze casts - maybe five or so." Jonathan is 
looking for a few Carrollians interested in buying the 
sculptures (at roughly $275) who could provide funding for 
the casting up front and who would be rewarded with one of 
the busts in bronze. Contact him: 
or 1 806'/2 Hopi Road, Santa Fe NM 87505. 1 .505.983.5204. 


The Independent (London), ran a feature called 
"Creativity" by "Loki" on June 20, 2000. The challenge was 
as follows: 

'"The 'Drawling Master was an old conger eel, who 
came in once a week and taught us drawling, stretching and 
fainting in coils.' What other subjects were taught at Lewis 
Carroll's Mock Turtle's Academy?" 

He constructed the following answer (names of 
submitters removed): 

"The Huge- Vanities Department is irresponsible 
for Anguish Luggage and Lotterytour, including 
Electrocution, Debasing and Public Spiking; plus Bulletics, 
Cosyology and Wreckonomics. An in-depth study of Non- 
Sense and Non-Sensibility is taught by Twaddledee and 
Twaddledum and probability theory is learned from 
textbooks published by Random House. 

The languidness syllabus includes Flinch, Looting 
and Rushing. The sighences include Chemisistry (for girls) 
and Chemikaze (for boys), also known as Fizzics. Students 
write a final year dissipation on "The Enblightenment", "The 
Disillusionment of the Monetaries" or "Oliver Crumble and 
The Desperation of the Manicy". 

On Wetday afterspoons, there is Triggernometery, 
Hysteria and Jogging Free. And on Thirsty yawnings, 
Dumbest-thick Science or Crookery, including: Taking, 
Prying, Spoiling and Boasting. And on Afraid days, Engine- 
hearing, Slychology, Stench, Sermon and Satin, followed 
by High Tea (including Worm Protesting and Losing the 
Winter Pet). 

The Full-ossify Department announces courses in 
Scepticism (N.B. this course might not run) and in Free Will 
{N.B. this course is compulsory). Then there is Joined-Up 
Whiting, Grin-Doctoring and a PR course including Adverse 
Tidings and Pubs In The City. Do cannibals study Human- 

Report from Abroad 

What could be more extraordinary than seven full 
days of sunshine in London? During these great days my 
time was filled visiting dear friends, seeing exciting places 
and hearing enjoyable performances. I spent a lovely 
afternoon with John and Edna Wilcox-Baker. John sends 
regards, along with the news that things are finally looking 
up for the Lewis Carroll Birthplace Trust. We might see 
him in New York next Spring. Attending the London 
International Antiquarian Book Fair was a special treat since 
most of the British and Continental book dealers rarely come 
to New York. Carroll material was everywhere. 

The highlight of my visit was the monthly meeting 
of the Lewis Carroll Society at Birkbeck College 
(University of London). It was wonderful to see Carrollian 
friends whom I have known for many years, including Mark 
Richards, Edward Wakeling, Selwyn Goodacre, Allen White 
and Anne Clark Amor. I met new Carrollian friends as well, 
such as Jenny Woolf, who showed an interest in joining us 


in Texas, and Caroline Luke [current executrix of the 
Dodgson estate] and her son William. Caroline is the 
daughter of Philip Jacques [CLD 's grand-nephew and 
former executor] and is taking an active part in the Society. 
Everyone was given a printed program, a great idea which 
was used successfully at our last Spring meeting in New 
York. Anne Clark Amor provided new information in her 
talk on Lewis Carroll's parents and forebears, a subject rarely 
covered. She discussed influences his parents had on him, 
which might have been connected with his later 
accomplishments. Caroline and William Luke assisted Anne 
by reading letters of Carroll's parents. Edward Wakeling 
showed slides of photos taken by Lewis Carroll at Daresbury 
and Selwyn Goodacre displayed some books by Archdeacon 
Dodgson and other relatives. 

After the meeting Mark and Katherine Richards, 
Edward, Selwyn, Allen White and Anne took me out for a 
delicious tapas dinner and delightful talk. It was the best of 
seven white stone days. 

~ Janet Jurist 

Houle Be the First? 

An unusual and truly stunning piece of anamorphic 
art has been composed by Kelly Houle. As her flyer is 
enclosed with this issue, I will not go into great length to 
describe its wonders, but a few highlights must suffice. 
From a distance, you see a nice lithograph which resembles 
nothing so much as a Cheshire Cat. Upon closer inspection, 
it is revealed as a collage of CLD's life and works, including 
photographs, letters, drawings, and so on. Now: placing it 
on a horizontal surface and adding the cylindrical mirror, 
you see a portrait of Dodgson himself reflected in it! Where 
did that come from? 

Anamorphic (from the Greek 'Avapopfywoiq, 
meaning "formed again") distortions - an art form in use 
since the Renaissance - are images revealed by reflection 
in a curved mirror. In this day and age they are usually com- 
puter-created; Houle has miraculously produced this 
remarkable effect entirely by hand! 

Martin Gardner wrote to her "I certainly have never 
seen or heard of an anamorphic picture based on a collage, 
and how you managed it beats me. It is now hanging on a 
wall with your descriptive sheet and letter on the back." 

This image is available as a lithograph (mirror 
included) or as a hand-cut jigsaw puzzle. A visit to www.kelly reveals other, more conventional anamorphic 
images for sale, such as "The Golden Afternoon". 

Highly recommended! 


mm m mi 

Confessions of an eGroup Groupie 

Be sure to join the wondrously informative 
and exciting Lewis Carroll eGroup at www. It is a forum for lively online 
discussions, queries, and all sorts of dialog regarding 
Carroll, his life and work. No cost, and it's a fine way 
to participate in (or just observe) heated debate 
between scholars like Hugues Lebailly, Mike and 
Karoline Leach, Kate Lyon, John Tufail, and many 
others. A random sampling of recent threads include: 

• Carroll's "Stolen Waters" and its connections to 
Keats's "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" 

• The resemblance between one of the characters 
of George Macdonald's Lilith and CLD 

• CLD's attitude about hell and eternal punishment 

• How photographs are best displayed and 
reproduced - cropped as the artist intended or 

• Interpreting the photograph of "Alice Liddell in 

• The "Lord Newry business" 

• Graphology (handwriting analysis) 

Keeping current by reading it daily ("view by 
date") is an excellent endeavor; contrariwise, looking 
at the discussions "by thread" will give you insight into 
the enormous range of subjects which have been 

THAT'S LIFE MikeTwohy 

100O MAt Twofcy. Dia. By WuNaglon PM Wrileti Oroup 


This is Vr.Ule.Hs, T>h. Steuiatrt, 
T)r. Lot- ton, Dt-. tAwiard, n 

Ttoeedle. dee and Tveedle dutn. 



rroM Dut° nir-frfuty 


AW - A Classic Illustrated Edition 
from Chronicle Books "is brought to 
life by a wondrous collection of 
vintage illustrations gathered from the 
late 1 9 th and early 20 th century editions 
collected and edited by Cooper Edens". 
$20. 0811822745. 

A new edition of The Hunting of the 
Snark illustrated by Mervyn Peake has 
been published by Methuen ($24). It 
includes new supplementary material, 
such as preparatory drawings. 
0413743802. Available in U.K. count- 
ries and online. 

Humpty Dumpty, written and illustrated 
by Daniel Kirk, Putnam's Sons, $16, 
(ages 4 to 8) - a retelling of the legend 
featuring a puzzle-mad boy king. 

Humpty Dumpty by Kin Eagle, Rob 
Gilbert (illustrator), $16, (ages 4 to 8), 
Charlesbridge Publishing; 15808901 

Sex and Business: Ethics of Sexuality 
in Business and the Workplace by 
Shere Hite, Financial Times/Prentice 
Hall. $23, 0273641980. "Her central 
thesis seems to be that men and women 
experience so many problems working 
together because there are too few 
models of healthy male-female 
interactions in our non working lives. 
Hite's solution to this mindset, the 
adoption of a new female role model - 
that of Alice (as in Wonderland) - is 
equally bizarre." 

Language Through the Looking 
Glass: Exploring Language and 
Linguistics by Marina Yaguello, 
Oxford 1998. 0198700059. Excellent 
and readable introduction, using many 
Carrollian examples. 

The Problem of the Evil Editor is the 
third of Roberta Rogow's mysteries 
featuring a fictionalized Conan Doyle 
and C.L.Dodgson. Oscar Wilde plays a 
prominent role in this tale of murder 
and mayhem. St. Martin's Minotaur, 
$24, 0312209037. [Some title!] 


Zwerger's illustrated AW in French by 
Ed. Nord-Sud; Oxenbury's in French by 
Flammarion, in Dutch by Uitgave 

"Why sex is humanity's best strategy 
for outwitting its constantly mutating 
internal predators, and answers to 
dozens of other riddles of human nature 
and culture" is the theme of The Red 
Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Hu- 
man Nature by Matt Ridley ($15), 
Penguin, 1995, 0140245480. The title 
refers to the oft-quoted remark about 

Performances Noted 

"The Bellman's Song" by Theater 
Gallery, a "dance-theater rendition" of 
HS, Sept.'99, Minneapolis MN; AW, a 
musical-theater production by the 
American Family Theater, at the 
TriBeCa Performing Arts Center in 
New York in May; a workshop staging 
of "Looking-Glass", a play by Gary 
Jarvis which "looks back to the day 
eccentric professor Lewis Carroll met 
Alice Liddell" at the New Play Festival 
in Vancouver in May; A W by City Lit 
Theater in Chicago IL in May "Alice 
Through the Looking Glass" by Ballet 
Theater of Lancaster PA June 2-4; AW 
by McLean School of Ballet and Jazz, 
music of Dmitri Shostakovich, June 3, 
Annandale VA. 

A multimedia "" by 
the Piwacket Theatre for Children 
premiered the week of July 9 - 16, at 
the St. Louis (MO) Art Museum. "Lost 
in cyberspace, she encounters a host 
of offbeat characters, including the 
search engines Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee, a (computer) mouse-cww- 
Dormouse, a Caterpillar who's just a 
big worm (a type of computer virus) 
and a time-conscious White Rabbit who 
carries, instead of a pocket watch, an 
hourglass computer icon. His prop 
inspires a big musical number, "Waiting 
for the Download". 

Trey Mclntyre's "Aliss in Wonderland", 
a "story ballet" of Alice coming to 
America through a big-screen TV, set 
to an eclectic score. A co-production 
of three companies, it premiered with 
Fort Worth / Dallas Ballet in November 
'99, and played at the Nashville Ballet 
in April '00 and then in Portland OR in 
June for their "American Choreo- 
graphers' Showcase", an annual Oregon 
Ballet Theatre presentation. 

Hamlet by the California Shakespeare 
Festival (Orinda, CA, in July) costumed 
Ophelia as Alice, Rosencrantz and 
Guildenstern as the Tweeedle brothers, 
and the Ghost as the White Knight. No 
one has come up with any rational 
explanation for this. 


"Curiouser and Curiouser" displays the 
fantastic Neutrogena Collection of 
textiles using an AW theme. Museum 
of International Folk Art (Museum of 
New Mexico, Santa Fe), June 12 
through 2001. 

"Alice Was Relieved that the Obnox- 
ious March Hare had Left the Party for 
a Few Moments Because He Was 
Really Getting on Her Nerves", a 
miniature tea-party scene by Pat 
Broadwin, as part of the Palo Alto (CA) 
Art Center's "Kids' Lit 1-0- Wonder" 
exhibition in June and July. 

"For Children Only - Alice: Recent 
Paintings and Objects by DeLoss 
McGraw", 6 May - 21 June at the 
William D. Cannon Art Gallery in 
Carlsbad CA. Mr. McGraw in his own 
words "paints like a failed fifth grader" 
and his faux-naif renderings in opaque 
watercolors are questionable at best. 
Apparently Harper Collins is threat- 
ening to publish an AW with his 
illustrations next spring. Catalog ($15) 
is available from the Gallery: 1775 
Dove Lane, Carlsbad CA 920098; 

A corner of Wonderland was on display 
as part of the second annual Freehold 
(NJ) Garden Tour" on Sunday, June 27. 



A video of the 1983 Broadway revival 
of the 1932 Eva Le Gallienne / Florida 
Friebus AW, broadcast on PBS as part 
of their "Great Performances" series, 
and starring Richard Burton, Maureen 
Stapleton, Colleen Dewhurst, Donald 
O'Connor, Kate Burton, Nathan Lane, 
and Fritz Weaver: $30 from The 
Broadway Theatre Archive, http:// 
new_title_detail.cfm?title=9; broad; P.O.Box 
2284, South Burlington VT 05407; 

Henry Czerny and Kiefer Sutherland 
starred in a made-for-TV movie "After 
Alice", which played on HBO May 
12th. Sutherland played an alcoholic 
cop who, after a fall, develops psychic 
powers and hunts a killer called the 
Jabberwock who has an "Alice in 
Wonderland" obsession. 

The Disney A W, previously available on 
tape and laserdisc, made its DVD debut 
the week of 23 June. 


Our Lewis Carroll Home Page has 
been awarded a Five Star rating by 
Schoolzone and their "panel of over 
400 expert teachers". 

CCBC-Net is an electronic forum of 
the School of Education at the 
University of Wisconsin-Madison to 
"encourage awareness and discussion 
of issues essential to literature for 
children". In October 2000, our own 
Monica Edinger, will lead a discussion 
and will share her experiences with 
Alice in the classroom, http://www. htm 

The ever-prolific Joyce Carol Oates' 
1993 essay on teratology, originally 
printed in The Ontario Review, entitled 
"Reflections on the Grotesque" and 
discussing TTLG is available at http:// 

FeverTV, an on-line interactive program 
from Australia, includes an animated 
series based on AW which is played on 
a weekly basis, 
The pages of the English-language 
journal "Lewis Carroll Studies" 
published by the Lewis Carroll Society 

of Japan are online at http://hosoi05. Each paper 
includes a summary in Japanese at the 
end. Downloading the free Adobe 
Acrobat Reader 4.05+ will enable you 
to see the Japanese - but download it 
from Adobe: ( 
products/acrobat/support, htm 1# 
download), not the button on the Japan- 
ese site). 

The company publishing the "dynamic 
text" version of Alice, an online 
teaching aid with animations and music 
(AX 59, p.20) is now called "Giraffics 
Multimedia", but still resides at The 
"Secrets of Lewis Carroll" section 
leads to such articles as "Lewis Carroll 
and Relativity" by John Tufail, which 
discusses Carroll's prescient 
foreshadowing in Sylvie and Bruno of 
Einstein's gravitational gedanken- 

"Secrecy and Autonomy in Lewis 
Carroll" by Susan Scherer at http:// 
and_literature/20. 1 sherer.html 

"To Stop a Bandersnatch", Mark Burst- 
er's college-days' ramble through the 
Alician academic fields, has been 
dandified and lightly revised: http:// 

The search engine google (www. featured a quiz, of which 
the first category is "World Wide 
Wonderland" with Carrollian quest- 
ions. By the way, websters, this is the 
next generation of search engines and 
is several orders of magnitude above 
all the others!! 

A new edition of "American McGee's 
Alice", an action game from Electronic 
Arts, will be released this Fall for use 
with the Quake III engine, according to 
articles in PC Gamer, July 2000 and 
The Times (London) August 5. "The no- 
longer sweet Alice wields a big knife, 
and Wonderland is a haunted hellhole." 
"Music" by Chris Vrenna, the ex- 
drummer of the band "Nine Inch Nails". 
Keep up with their progress at 


"Flora V. Livingston: Curator, Biblio- 
grapher ... Lewis Carroll Enthusiast" 


by August Imholtz in the Harvard 
Library Bulletin, Vol. 9 No. 4, Winter 

"Feeling Flimsy and Miserable" by Joe 
Christopher in Mythprint: The 
Bulletin of the Mythopoeic Society 
Vol.37 No. 7, July '00 discusses 
neologisms from "Jabberwocky". 

"Off the wall: His Studio Is Straight 
From Alice In Wonderland" June 15, 
2000 in The Guardian (London) 
reports on the strange life of artist 
Peter Blake, who's most famous for the 
"Sergeant Pepper" cover (featuring 
CLD), and who keeps a Carroll 
collection at his home in Chiswick. 

"Sinclair Lewis and Lewis Carroll" by 
Martin Bucco. The Sinclair Lewis 
Society Newsletter, Vol.8 No.l, Fall 

"T am the walrus' in Aramaic" by Ariel 
Sabar, Providence Journal/Bulletin, 
12 May and widely reproduced on the 
Web describes the tribulations of his 
father, a Near Eastern languages 
specialist, who was hired by the "X- 
files" TV show to impersonate the 
voice of the Divine, speaking in 
Aramaic. The producers, figuring it 
would be amusing to have one over on 
the viewers, had him speak the words 
"I am the walrus" (which John Lennon 
maintained was based on the Carroll 
poem - see "Serendipity" in KL 51). 
Since "walruses are not native to the 
flatlands on Zakho" he had to 
improvise a term and thus spake "I am 
the dog of the sea." 

"A plenum of palindromes for Lewis 
Carroll" by Roy A. Sorenson, Mind! v. 
109 supplement, Jan 2000. The author 
creates "BIGBOB", an esoteric, 
palindromic, but presumably linguis- 
tically navigable nonsense "poem," 
consisting of a huge matrix with the 
word BOB in each cell. 

"Philadelphia: Please Touch Museum 
lets children have fun while learning" 
by Terry Conway in The Baltimore Sun, 
06/20/1999. "The Please Touch 
Museum is the great-granddaddy of the 
region's children's museums, designed 
for kids ages 1 to 7." See KL 63, p. 14. 

Oconomowoc native Roxanne 
Westphal was selected as this year's 

"Alice in Dairyland" according to the 
Cheese Register, 9 June. 

A review of Karoline Leach's In the 
Shadow of the Dreamchild by August 
Imholtz in The Virginia Quarterly 
Review Vol. 76 No. 3, Summer, 2000. 

A letter from Hal Varian in the New 
York Times on 15 June bemoans the 
number of Frenchmen "walking down 
the Champs-Elysee while carrying on 
telephone conversations" and reports 
that the French call this behavior 

A review of Vini-der-Pu (Winnie-the- 
Pooh in Yiddish), translated by Leonard 
Wolf, in the New York Times on 29 July 
mentions the tantalizing possibility of 
his similarly translating AW. 


At MATH 2000, a four-day meeting 
(10-13 June 2000 at McMaster 
University in Hamilton, Ontario) of all 
the Canadian mathematical societies, 
Fran Abeles gave a well-received paper 
entitled "Game Theory and Politics: A 
Note on C.L. Dodgson". 

In "The Horticulturist's Alice: A Gar- 
den Tour of Wonderland" - a talk with 
slides and music describing the flora 
and fauna with excursions into the 
culture of the Victorian garden - Bob 
Hornback, splendidly bedecked in 19 th - 
c. tails and an "I Love Lew C" button, 
expanded his thoughts, at the Strybing 
Arboretum on 26 July. He has also 
presented this to the West Coast 
Chapter of the LCSNA (1987), the 
LCSNA (1988) and it was published in 
the Fall 1983 issue of Pacific Horti- 

A panel discussion called "From 
Grimm Beginnings" at The Oz Centen- 
nial Convention, sponsored by The 
International Wizard of Oz Club 
( and held July 20 - 23 
at Indiana University in Bloomington, 
dealt with the literary influence of the 
Alice books and others on the creation 
of Oz. Panelists were Alison Lurie, 
Joel Chaston, and Jan Susina. 


A few things Janet Jurist recently 
reports purchasing on a spree in the 
Morgan Library gift shop (in New York 
or "You are 

Nothing But a Pack of Cards" flipbook, 
published by B. Shackman & Co., $3; 
Dover "AW Sticker Activity Book", $1 
(wherein the March Hare is "tardy" and 
the mouse is identified as a "dor- 
mouse"); "AW Story Stickers" which 
has pictures and words that can be used 
separately or together, by Peaceable 
Kingdom Press, $3.50. 

A great source of classic Disney Alice 
pieces, dolls, and so on is the 
Duirwaigh Gallery in Deleon Springs 
DisneyGallery/Alice; Duirwaigh Gal-; 904.985.2478. 

The Pewter Gallery has some very 
offbeat Alice figurines ($11 - $18). 
store419/mall/web_store.cgi and 
scroll down the left window to the A W 
section. 408.259.5952 

"Toy Vault" has produced a cold cast 
resin box set containing: Alice (w/ 
Flamingo and Hedgehog), Humpty 
Dumpty, The Mad Hatter, and the 
Caterpillar (w/Hookah pipe and 
Mushroom). $30 from http://store. 1 . 

"Shaped CDs" for children include a 
31-minute AW "audio storybook". 
#CEAD012 from MRK Marketing, 
416.640.5165. www.mrkmarketing. 
com. They will direct you to a retailer. 

"If you are already sick of the millen- 
nium and more than ready for the acid 
crawlback, call Old Glory Distributing 
at 800.892.3323 for a full color 
jacquard blanket woven with the LP 
cover art for Sgt. Pepper featuring 
CLD, or perhaps a black light Tenniel 
poster is more your thing, and don't 
forget T-shirts: a glow-in-the-dark 
Cheshire Cat, resplendent tie-dyes with 
the caterpillar on one side and the tea 
party on the other, and other 
Wonderland designs." ~ Cindy. Or go 
to and enter the 
keyword "Wonderland". 

Clay sculptor Dave Kellum, who lives 
in Tampa, FL, is producing a series of 
12 functional sculptures (14" - 20" 
tall) based on Tenniel. The first piece, 
"Pig Baby", is a lamp; the second will 
be a "Pool of Tears" fountain. Event- 

ually they will be for sale. See http://; 

Need outdoor outfitting? Try www. 

Bud Plant 's Incredible Catalog is a 
treasure-trove of materials relating to 
the art of illustration. Such titles as The 
Collectible World of Mabel Lucie 
Atwell; Sir John Tenniel: Aspects of 
His Work; and an AW illustrated by 
Rene Cloke are to be found among 
books on the Pre-Raphaelites, Disney, 
comics, and adult "glamour" titles. If 
you don't own a copy of Wally Wood's 
playfully erotic "Malice in Wonder- 
land" comic it's reprinted in the book 
Naughty "Knotty" Wood; Mad Maga- 
zine's satire in Tales Calculated to 
Drive You Mad #6. Go to www. or request a catalog from 
Bud Plant Comic Art, PO Box 1689; 
Grass Valley, CA 95945; 800.242. 

An elegant collection of Candle 
Crowns™ sculpted in England by the 
Bronte Porcelain Company, is available 
from the Horchow Collection catalog. 
There are six Wonderland figures in 
this set of hand-painted candle snuffers 
and a lovely wooden spiral staircase 
made for their display. The figures are 
available individually ($35-40) or as a 
set (230); the staircase is $100. 
P.O.Box 620048, Dallas TX 75262; 

Hand-cranked musical boxes from 
Sankyo ($18) are still available - the 
porcelain figurines, musical shadow 
boxes, kaleidoscopes, and so on are 
now discontinued. To find a local 
retailer, call TMC Designs in Gardena, 
CA at 310.516.7255. 

Books on tape: "Cats: 15 Complete 
Stories And Poems", read by Liza 
Goddard and Richard Griffiths, Audio 
Partners, 3 hours (unabridged), $18, a 
collection which includes two scenes 
(but no segue) from A W involving the 
Cheshire Cat. 

A beautiful-looking "celestial globe" is 
in progress from Greaves & Thomas 
of the U.K., using Tenniel drawings as 
the constellations: Alice (Virgo), 
Tweedledum and -dee (Gemini), the 


lion (Leo), a mock turtle (Taurus), and 
so on. Three sizes: 33" diameter on an 
elaborate stand where the three card 
gardeners will support the horizon ring; 
16" diameter balanced on the end of 

Father William's nose; and a 7.5" 
diameter paper version. Watch http:// 
facsimile/globealice.html or contact 

them: jamesbt@greavesandthomas.; P.O. Box 190, Richmond, 
Surrey, TW9 4ER, England; +44 
(0)208 392 6969. 

Kim Deitch, from Alice's Adventures under Ground, Word-Play Publications, 2000. 

See p. 1 7 for a full description. 

For help in preparing this issue thanks are due to Fran Abeles, Earl Abbe, Ruth Berman, Gary Brockman, Sandor 
Burstein, Matt Demakos, Llisa Demetrios Burstein, Angelica Carpenter, Johanna Hurwitz, August Imholtz, Clare 
Imholtz, Janet Jurist, Chloe Nichols, Sandra Parker, Lucille Posner, Bea Sidaway, Stephanie Lovett, Alan Tannenbaum, 
Cindy Watter and Alan White. 

Knight Letter is the official newsletter of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. It is published several times 
a year and is distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be 
addressed to the Secretary, 18 Fitzharding Place, Owing Mills MD 21117. Annual membership dues are U.S. $20 
(regular) and $50 (sustaining). Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor, Box 2006, 
Mill Valley CA 94942. 

President: Stephanie Lovett, Secretary: Ellie Luchinsky, 

Editor: Mark Burstein, 
Lewis Carroll Society of North America Home Page: